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Onion Routing is an infrastructure for private communication over a public network. It provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traac analysis. Onion routing's anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real-time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection can be used. Any identifying information must be(More)
This paper describes an architecture, Onion Routing, that limits a network's vulnerability to traac analysis. The architecture provides anonymous socket connections by means of proxy servers. It provides real-time, bi-directional, anonymous communication for any protocol that can be adapted to use a proxy service. Speciically, the architecture provides for(More)
This paper describes security protocols that use anonymous channels as primitive, much in the way that key distribution protocols take encryption as primitive. This abstraction allows us to focus on high level anonymity goals of these protocols much as abstracting away from encryption clariies and emphasizes high level security goals of key distribution(More)
This paper describes a communications primitive, anonymous connections , that supports bidirectional and near real-time channels that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traac analysis. The connections are made anonymous, although communication need not be. These anonymous connections are versatile and support private use of many diierent Internet(More)
Classical stereology is capable of quantifying the total amount or 'density' of a geometrical feature from sampled information, but gives no information about the local spatial arrangement of the feature. However, stereological methods also exist for quantifying the 'local' spatial architecture of a 3D microstructure from sampled information. These methods(More)
The estimation of object volume from rotationally randomised sections relies on an ancient geometrical principle due to the Alexandrian mathematician Pappus. In this paper we describe two studies that make estimates of eye volume using a stereological version of the Pappus principle. The first study uses a design-based version of the Pappus theorem to make(More)