Michael G. Reed

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Onion Routing is an infrastructure for private communication over a public network. It provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and tra c analysis. Onion routing's anonymous connections are bidirectional and near realtime, and can be used anywhere a socket connection can be used. Any identifying information must be in(More)
This paper describes an architecture, Onion Routing, that limits a network's vulnerability to tra c analysis. The architecture provides anonymous socket connections by means of proxy servers. It provides real-time, bi-directional, anonymous communication for any protocol that can be adapted to use a proxy service. Speci cally, the architecture provides for(More)
reserving privacy means not only hiding the content of messages, but also hiding who is talking to whom (traffic analysis). Much like a physical envelope, the simple application of cryptography within a packet-switched network hides the contents of messages being sent, but can reveal who is talking to whom, and how often. Onion Routing is a general-purpose(More)
This paper describes security protocols that use anonymous channels as primitive, much in the way that key distribution protocols take encryption as primitive. This abstraction allows us to focus on high level anonymity goals of these protocols much as abstracting away from encryption clari es and emphasizes high level security goals of key distribution(More)
It's hard to imagine a software agent that could cause physical harm to anyone -it's only software, after all. But what if that software is controlling an electrical appliance, say a coffee maker? Could a control failure cause the coffee maker to overheat and start a fire? We hope not; the coffee maker should in any case have passed an Underwriters'(More)
This paper describes a communications primitive, anonymous connections, that supports bidirectional and near real-time channels that are resistant to both eavesdropping and tra c analysis. The connections are made anonymous, although communication need not be. These anonymous connections are versatile and support private use of many di erent Internet(More)