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Most therapies under development to restore motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI) assume intact brain motor functions. To examine this assumption, 12 patients with chronic, complete SCI and 12 controls underwent functional MRI during attempted, and during imagined, right foot movement, each at two force levels. In patients with SCI, many features of(More)
This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare functional neuroanatomy associated with executed and imagined hand movements in novel and skilled learning phases. We hypothesized that 1 week of intensive physical practice would strengthen the motor representation of a hand motor sequence and increase the similarity of functional(More)
Abnormalities in brain motor system function are present following spinal cord injury (SCI) and could reduce effectiveness of restorative interventions. Motor imagery training, which can improve motor behavior and modulate brain function, might address this concern but has not been examined in subjects with SCI. Ten subjects with SCI and complete(More)
A closed-loop model of motor control predicts that central deafferentation should disrupt cortical motor processes when imagining movements of paralyzed limbs. To test this prediction, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from the supplementary motor area and the primary sensorimotor area in individuals with paraplegia or quadriplegia as well as(More)
Motor behavior and sensorimotor activation of the cerebrum and cerebellum were measured before and after motor imagery-based mental practice (MP) and physical practice (PP) of a sequential motor task. Two-button-press sequences (A, B) were performed outside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner and at 2 Hz inside the scanner during a pretest. Participants (n(More)
Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have shown that executed action and motor imagery activate common neuronal substrates, leading to the hypothesis that movement preparation and motor imagery are functionally equivalent processes. This study further tested the functional equivalence hypothesis by determining whether electrocortical patterns(More)
Evidence suggests that executed, imagined, and observed movements share neural substrates, however, brain activation during the performance of these three tasks has not yet been examined during lower extremity movements. Functional MRI was performed in 10 healthy right-footed participants during imagined, executed, and observed right ankle movements. Task(More)
Cerebral control of foot movements has received limited study. Functional MRI compared slow with rapid foot movement, and right (dominant) with left foot movement. Brain activation during right, as compared with left, foot movement was larger, with higher amplitude task-related motor cortex signal change, and higher laterality index. Brain activation during(More)
Falls are a leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among the elderly. Accurate determination of risk factors associated with falls in older adults is necessary, not only for individual patient management, but also for the development of fall prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical measures, such as(More)
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