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Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by brief episodes of ataxia associated with continuous interattack myokymia. Point mutations in the human voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.1) gene on chromosome 12p13 have recently been shown to associate with EA1. A Scottish family with EA1 harbouring a novel mutation in(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic basis of most common forms of human paroxysmal disorders of the central nervous system, such as epilepsy, remains unidentified. Several animal models of absence epilepsy, commonly accompanied by ataxia, are caused by mutations in the brain P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channel. We aimed to determine whether the P/Q-type(More)
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2(More)
The molecular basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy remains poorly understood. Absence epilepsy with 3 Hz spike-wave EEG is one of the most common human epilepsies, and is associated with significant morbidity. Several spontaneously occurring genetic mouse models of absence epilepsy are caused by dysfunction of the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel(More)
Primary episodic ataxias are autosomal dominant channelopathies that manifest as attacks of imbalance and incoordination. Mutations in two genes, KCNA1 and CACNA1A, cause the best characterized and account for the majority of identified cases of episodic ataxia. We summarize current knowledge of clinical and genetic diagnosis, genotype-phenotype(More)
The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of a new and expanding field of neurological diseases--the genetic ion channelopathies. These disorders arise from mutations in genes that encode ion channel subunits, and manifest as paroxysmal attacks involving the brain or spinal cord, and/or muscle. The voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel (P/Q(More)
Myotonia congenita (MC) is the commonest genetic skeletal muscle ion channelopathy. It is caused by mutations in CLCN1 on chromosome 7q35, which alter the function of the major skeletal muscle voltage-gated chloride channel. Dominant and recessive forms of the disease exist. We have undertaken a clinical, genetic and molecular expression study based upon a(More)
BACKGROUND Population-based studies suggest the m.3243A>G mutation in MTTL1 is the most common disease-causing mtDNA mutation, with a carrier rate of 1 in 400 people. The m.3243A>G mutation is associated with several clinical syndromes including mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), maternally inherited deafness and(More)
The molecular basis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV) deficiency remains genetically undetermined in many cases. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous pedigree with isolated COX deficiency linked to a Leigh syndrome neurological phenotype. Unexpectedly, affected individuals harbored homozygous splice(More)
OBJECTIVES To characterize the clinical and genetic features of spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the androgen receptor gene, in the United Kingdom. METHODS We created a national register for SBMA in the United Kingdom and recruited 61 patients between 2005(More)