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We tend to assume that natural selection will bring about 'optimal' configurations in morphology and behaviour. Jumping locomotion involves large forces and energy costs which, in this non-cyclic activity, are generated anew with each jump. Jumping appears to be, therefore, a major target for optimization. It has been a standard assumption that jumpers will(More)
This paper supplies quantitative data on the hind- and forelimb musculature of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and calculates maximum joint moments of force as a contribution to a better understanding of the differences between chimpanzee and human locomotion. We dissected three chimpanzees, and recorded muscle mass, fascicle length, and physiological(More)
It is universally accepted that the postcranial skeleton of the early hominid Australopithecus afarensis shows adaptations, or at least exaptations, towards bipedalism. However, there continues to be a debate concerning the likely form of terrestrial bipedality: whether gait was erect, like our own, or "bent-hip, bent-knee" like the bipedalism of living(More)
The jump is always used for locomotion. For its execution in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes the requirements are of somewhat different nature. In an arboreal biotope the jump is characterized by a rapid progression through discontinuous substrates and the ability to take off from a small area and a secure landing on a spot. This requires well coordinated(More)
Bipedal walking by common chimpanzees is known to differ both kinematically and kinetically from human bipedalism, in particular by the adoption of flexed-knee gaits and characteristically single-peaked vertical ground reaction force curves. This study provides a test of the proposition that the two former mechanical characteristics are functionally(More)
Body size has a dominant influence on locomotor performance and the morphology of the locomotor apparatus. In locomotion under the influence of gravity, body mass acts as weight force and is a mechanical variable. Accordingly, the application of biomechanical principles and methods allows a functional understanding of scaling effects in locomotion. This is(More)
Size and proportions of the postcranial skeleton differ markedly between Australopithecus afarensis and Homo ergaster, and between the latter and modern Homo sapiens. This study uses computer simulations of gait in models derived from the best-known skeletons of these species (AL 288-1, Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million year ago) and KNM-WT 15000(More)
The plantar aponeurosis (PA), in spanning the whole length of the plantar aspect of the foot, is clearly identified as one of the key structures that is likely to affect compliance and stability of the longitudinal arch. A recent study performed in our laboratory showed that tension/elongation in the PA can be predicted from the kinematics of the segments(More)
We present quantitative data on the hindlimb musculature of Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Gorilla gorilla graueri, Pongo pygmaeus abelii and Hylobates lar and discuss the findings in relation to the locomotor habits of each. Muscle mass and fascicle length data were obtained for all major hindlimb muscles. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)(More)