Michael Günther

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Gibbons utilize a number of locomotor modes in the wild, including bipedalism, leaping and, most of all, brachiation. Each locomotor mode puts specific constraints on the morphology of the animal; in some cases these may be complementary, whereas in others they may conflict. Despite several studies of the locomotor biomechanics of gibbons, very little is(More)
The jump is always used for locomotion. For its execution in arboreal and terrestrial biotopes the requirements are of somewhat different nature. In an arboreal biotope the jump is characterized by a rapid progression through discontinuous substrates and the ability to take off from a small area and a secure landing on a spot. This requires well coordinated(More)
Body size has a dominant influence on locomotor performance and the morphology of the locomotor apparatus. In locomotion under the influence of gravity, body mass acts as weight force and is a mechanical variable. Accordingly, the application of biomechanical principles and methods allows a functional understanding of scaling effects in locomotion. This is(More)
The plantar aponeurosis (PA), in spanning the whole length of the plantar aspect of the foot, is clearly identified as one of the key structures that is likely to affect compliance and stability of the longitudinal arch. A recent study performed in our laboratory showed that tension/elongation in the PA can be predicted from the kinematics of the segments(More)
The mechanical requirements for arboreal life are reviewed and the constraints which these requirements impose on the body of a prosimian are defined. The mechanical necessities can be fulfilled only by animals which possess the appropriate morphological characters. It is incorrect to refer to these morphological traits directly as 'adaptations'. Instead(More)
The storage and recovery of elastic strain energy in the musculoskeletal systems of locomoting animals has been extensively studied, yet the external environment represents a second potentially useful energy store that has often been neglected. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of orangutans to usefully recover energy from swaying trees to(More)
Size and proportions of the postcranial skeleton differ markedly between Australopithecus afarensis and Homo ergaster, and between the latter and modern Homo sapiens. This study uses computer simulations of gait in models derived from the best-known skeletons of these species (AL 288-1, Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million year ago) and KNM-WT 15000(More)
Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of(More)
If trained to walk bipedally at a juvenile age and over periods of some months or years, Japanese monkeys gradually acquire a pronounced lordosis of the lumbar spine. This lordosis persists even in the 'normal', pronograde posture of these animals. It is due to a relative increase of the ventral lengths of the vertebral bodies. This morphological change is(More)
Some targets of cell-mediated cytolysis do not efficiently release 51Cr but manifestly are killed in direct viability assays. We characterize and validate an alternative and non-radioactive (colorimetric) method for measuring killing of adherent targets by monoclonal CTL. The method obviates concerns about the effects of trypsinization, is technically(More)