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- André Seyfarth, Hartmut Geyer, Michael Günther, Reinhard Blickhan
- Journal of biomechanics
- 2002

The adjustment of the leg during running was addressed using a spring-mass model with a fixed landing angle of attack. The objective was to obtain periodic movement patterns. Spring-like running was monitored by a one-dimensional stride-to-stride mapping of the apex height to identify mechanically stable fixed points. We found that for certain angles of… (More)

- Sten Grimmer, Michael P Ernst, Michael Günther, Reinhard Blickhan
- The Journal of experimental biology
- 2008

Human running is characterized by comparably simple whole-body dynamics. These dynamics can be modelled with a point mass bouncing on a spring leg. Theoretical studies using such spring-mass models predict that running can be self-stable. In simulations, this self-stability allows for running on uneven ground without paying attention to the ground… (More)

- Michael Günther
- 1997

- Michael Günther, Hanns Ruder
- Biological Cybernetics
- 2003

To test the λ-model version of the equilibrium point hypothesis both for feasibility and validity with respect to the control of terrestrial locomotion, we developed a two-dimensional, eleven-segment musculoskeletal model of the human body including 14 muscle-tendon complexes per leg, three-segment feet, and a physiologically based model of foot-ground… (More)

- Daniel F. B. Haeufle, Michael Günther, Ady Bayer, Syn Schmitt
- Journal of biomechanics
- 2014

Hill-type muscle models are commonly used in biomechanical simulations to predict passive and active muscle forces. Here, a model is presented which consists of four elements: a contractile element with force-length and force-velocity relations for concentric and eccentric contractions, a parallel elastic element, a series elastic element, and a serial… (More)

- Susanne W. Lipfert, Michael Günther, Daniel Renjewski, Sten Grimmer, André Seyfarth
- Journal of theoretical biology
- 2012

The human musculo-skeletal system comprises high complexity which makes it difficult to identify underlying basic principles of bipedal locomotion. To tackle this challenge, a common approach is to strip away complexity and formulate a reductive model. With utter simplicity a bipedal spring-mass model gives good predictions of the human gait dynamics,… (More)

- Michael Günther, Valentin Keppler, André Seyfarth, Reinhard Blickhan
- Journal of mathematical biology
- 2004

Alignment of joints with respect to the leg axis reduces the moment arm of external forces and therefore joint torques. Moreover, it affects the gearing of muscle forces and displacements. Thus, it influences tissue stress, cost of support and locomotion, and stability. Assuming that alignment is of general advantage we propose a mathematical criterion… (More)

- Michael Günther, Reinhard Blickhan
- Journal of biomechanics
- 2002

The spring-mass model is a valid fundament to understand global dynamics of fast legged locomotion under gravity. The underlying concept of elasticity, implying leg stiffness as a crucial parameter, is also found on lower motor control levels, i.e. in muscle-reflex and muscle-tendon systems. Therefore, it seems reasonable that global leg stiffness emerges… (More)

- Michael Günther, Hanns Ruder
- Biological cybernetics
- 2003

To test the lambda-model version of the equilibrium point hypothesis both for feasibility and validity with respect to the control of terrestrial locomotion, we developed a two-dimensional, eleven-segment musculoskeletal model of the human body including 14 muscle-tendon complexes per leg, three-segment feet, and a physiologically based model of foot-ground… (More)

- Reinhard Blickhan, André Seyfarth, Hartmut Geyer, Sten Grimmer, Heiko Wagner, Michael Günther
- Philosophical transactions. Series A…
- 2007

Research on the biomechanics of animal and human locomotion provides insight into basic principles of locomotion and respective implications for construction and control. Nearly elastic operation of the leg is necessary to reproduce the basic dynamics in walking and running. Elastic leg operation can be modelled with a spring-mass model. This model can be… (More)