Michael Fray

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The pathology of chronic dermal ulcers is characterized by excessive proteolytic activity which degrades extracellular matrix (required for cell migration) and growth factors and their receptors. The overexpression of MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) and MMP-13 (collagenase-3) is associated with nonhealing wounds, whereas active MMPs-1, -2, -9, and -14 are required(More)
 The agronomic potential of a Brassica napus variant with petalless flowers was compromised by an associated detrimental change in leaf morphology. Genetic analysis demonstrated the cosegregation of genes controlling both morphologies. Two STAP loci controlling the production of flowers with stamenoid petals were mapped to homoeologous locations in the(More)
While skin wounds heal by scarring, wounds of oral mucosa show privileged healing with minimal scar formation. Our hypothesis was that phenotypic differences between oral and skin fibroblasts underlie these differences in healing. The aims of this study were to compare MMP-3 expression by oral and skin fibroblasts and investigate a role for MMP-3 in(More)
The transplantation of allogeneic skin grafts is associated with a potent inflammatory immune response leading to the destruction of donor cells and the rejection of the graft. Shortly after transplantation, skin dendritic cells (DCs) migrate out of the graft through lymphatic vessels and infiltrate the recipient's draining lymph nodes where they present(More)
The mechanism by which regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress the immune response is not well defined. A recent study has shown that β-catenin prolongs Treg cell survival. Because β-catenin is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β)-directed phosphorylation, we focused on GSK-3β and the role it plays in Treg cell function. Inhibition of GSK-3β led to(More)
We report the structure-activity relationships of further analogues in a series of piperazine derivatives as dual inhibitors of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake, that is, with additional substitution of the phenyl rings, or their replacement by heterocycles. The enantiomers of compounds 1 and 2 were also profiled, and possessed drug-like physicochemical(More)
A novel class of 2-(4-heterocyclylphenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridines (2-38) possessing antagonist activity against platelet activating factor (PAF) was prepared by the Hantzsch synthesis from a variety of ethyl 4'-heterocyclic-substituted benzoylacetates, aryl or heteroaryl aldehydes, and substituted 3-aminocrotonamides or 3-aminocrotonate esters.(More)
Structure activity relationships are described for a series of succinyl hydroxamic acids 4a-o as potent and selective inhibitors of matrix metalloprotease-3 (stromelysin-1). Optimisation of P1' and P3' groups gave compound 4j (MMP-3 IC50=5.9nM) which was >140-fold less potent against MMP-1 (IC50=51,000nM), MMP-2 (IC50=1790nM), MMP-9 (IC50=840nM) and MMP-14(More)
A series of 6,7-dichloro-1,4-dihydro-(1H, 4H)-quinoxaline-2,3-diones (1-17) were prepared in which the 5-position substituent was a heterocyclylmethyl or 1-(heterocyclyl)-1-propyl group. Structure-activity relationships were evaluated where binding affinity for the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was measured using the specific(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antinucleic acid autoantibodies, high levels of circulating type I interferon (IFN-I), and an IFN-I-dependent elevated expression of activating FcγR. Increases in neutrophils and monocytes are often observed in clinical SLE, but how these contribute to autoantibody(More)