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We investigated the role of domain structure, in designing for software usefulness and usability. We ran through the whole application development cycle, in miniature, from needs analysis through design, implementation, and evaluation, for planning needs of one NASA Mission Control group. Based on our needs analysis, we developed prototype software that(More)
—Automated systems are increasingly complex, making it hard to design interfaces for human operators. Human-machine interaction (HMI) errors like automation surprises are more likely to appear and lead to system failures or accidents. In previous work, we studied the problem of generating system abstractions, called mental models, that facilitate system(More)
The efficiency and robustness of pilot-automation interaction is a function of the volume of memorized action sequences required to use the automation to perform mission tasks. This paper describes a model of pilot cognition for the evaluation of the cognitive usability of cockpit automation. Five common cockpit automation design errors are discussed with(More)
Needs analysis is a prerequisite to effective design, but typically is difficult and time consuming. We applied and extended our methods and tools in a case study helping a mission control group for the International Space Station. This domain illustrates the challenges of information-system domains that lack rigid, immutable, physical constraints and(More)
Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI Program Office is operated by Langley Research Center, the Lead Center for NASA's scientific and technical information.(More)
The realization of NextGen capabilities will require rapid deployment of revised airline cockpit procedures and the pre-requisite training and proficiency checks. Traditional approaches for the evaluation of the re-designed procedures and training, such as expert reviews and human-in-the- loop tests, cannot provide comprehensive analysis, cannot be(More)
The Multi-function Control and Display Unit (MCDU) has been identified as a source of issues pilots have transitioning to glass cockpits. Several aircraft manufacturers and avion-ics vendors have committed to replace the MCDU with graphical user-interfaces in the next generation of commercial aircraft. A cognitive task analysis of pilot-MCDU interaction,(More)
The Multi-function Control and Display Unit (MCDU), introduced to the commercial aircraft flightdeck in the 1970's, has been identified as a source of the issues pilots have transitioning to glass cockpits. Several aircraft manufacturers and avionics vendors have committed to replace the MCDU with graphical user-interfaces in the next generation of(More)
A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator(More)