Michael Famulare

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The random transitions of ion channels between conducting and nonconducting states generate a source of internal fluctuations in a neuron, known as channel noise. The standard method for modeling the states of ion channels nonlinearly couples continuous-time Markov chains to a differential equation for voltage. Beginning with the work of R. F. Fox and Y.-N.(More)
Neuronal responses are often characterized by the firing rate as a function of the stimulus mean, or the f–I curve. We introduce a novel classification of neurons into Types A, B−, and B+ according to how f–I curves are modulated by input fluctuations. In Type A neurons, the f–I curves display little sensitivity to input fluctuations when the mean current(More)
Adaptation is a fundamental computational motif in neural processing. To maintain stable perception in the face of rapidly shifting input, neural systems must extract relevant information from background fluctuations under many different contexts. Many neural systems are able to adjust their input-output properties such that an input's ability to trigger a(More)
The relationship between a neuron's complex inputs and its spiking output defines the neuron's coding strategy. This is frequently and effectively modeled phenomenologically by one or more linear filters that extract the components of the stimulus that are relevant for triggering spikes and a nonlinear function that relates stimulus to firing probability.(More)
UNLABELLED To assess the dynamics of genetic reversion of live poliovirus vaccine in humans, we studied molecular evolution in Sabin-like poliovirus isolates from Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis cases obtained from routine surveillance. We employed a novel modeling approach to infer substitution and recombination rates from whole-genome sequences and(More)
A fundamental complexity of polio eradication is that the elimination of wild poliovirus (WPV) alters the risk-benefit profile of using oral polio vaccine (OPV)—as WPV is eliminated, OPV produces an increasing proportion of the paralytic disease burden since, in rare instances, OPV causes paralysis in vaccine recipients and generates circulating(More)
BACKGROUND Phylogeography improves our understanding of spatial epidemiology. However, application to practical problems requires choices among computational tools to balance statistical rigor, computational complexity, sensitivity to sampling strategy and interpretability. METHODS We introduce a fast, heuristic algorithm to reconstruct partially-observed(More)
A neuron transforms its input into output spikes, and this transformation is the basic unit of computation in the nervous system. The spiking response of the neuron to a complex, time-varying input can be predicted from the detailed biophysical properties of the neuron, modeled as a deterministic nonlinear dynamical system. In the tradition of neural(More)
BACKGROUND Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was replaced worldwide from April, 2016, by bivalent types 1 and 3 oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) where available. The risk of transmission of type 2 poliovirus or Sabin 2 virus on re-introduction or resurgence of type 2 poliovirus after this switch is not understood(More)