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The computer games industry is now bigger than the film industry. Until recently, technology in games was driven by a desire to achieve real-time, photo-realistic graphics. To a large extent, this has now been achieved. As game developers look for new and innovative technologies to drive games development, AI is coming to the fore. This paper will examine(More)
—Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) are utilized in many sensitive commercial, scientific and military applications. However, current network protocols have not been designed to defend against security attacks that can block or degrade network communication and performance. Geographic routing is an essential service used in UANs and current protocols are(More)
The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared between about 44,000 and 42,000 calendar years before present (44–42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is(More)
Computational finite element analyses (FEAs) of the skull predict structural deformations under user specified loads and constraints, with results normally presented as stress and strain distributions over the skull's surface. The applied loads are generally a representation of the major adductor musculature, with the skull constrained at bite positions and(More)
Evaluating stress and strain fields in anatomical structures is a way to test hypotheses that relate specific features of facial and skeletal morphology to mechanical loading. Engineering techniques such as finite element analysis are now commonly used to calculate stress and strain fields, but if we are to fully accept these methods we must be confident(More)
Finite element analyses (FEA) that have simulated masticatory loadings of the human mandible differ significantly with regard to their basic input variables such as material properties, constraints, and applied forces. With sensitivity analyses it is possible to assess how the choice of different input values and the degree of model simplification affect(More)