Michael F. Whitfield

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CONTEXT Despite more than 2 decades of outcomes research after very preterm birth, clinicians remain uncertain about the extent to which neonatal morbidities predict poor long-term outcomes of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVE To determine the individual and combined prognostic effects of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD),(More)
The impact of invasive procedures on preterm neonates has received little systematic attention. We examined facial activity, body movements, and physiological measures in 56 preterm and full-term newborns in response to heel lancing, along with comparison preparatory and recovery intervals. The measures were recorded in special care and full-term nurseries(More)
Procedural pain in the neonatal intensive care unit triggers a cascade of physiological, behavioral and hormonal disruptions which may contribute to altered neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm, who undergo prolonged hospitalization at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development. The aim of this study was to examine relationships(More)
Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility, and activity level in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) adolescents at 17 years of age with term-born control subjects. METHODS Fifty-three ELBW teens of birth weight <or=800 g were assessed at 17.3 years (16.3-19.7 years; birth weight: 720 g [520-800 g]; gestation: 26 weeks [23-29 weeks])(More)
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is defined as an impairment in the development of motor coordination that interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living (DSM-IV). DCD has been reported to affect 5% to 9% of children in the normal population. This study describes the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight(More)
High-technology medical care of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants (< 1001 g) involves repeated medical interventions which are potentially painful and may later affect reaction to pain. At 18 months corrected age (CCA), we examined parent ratings of pain sensitivity and how pain sensitivity ratings related to child temperament and parenting style in(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence and pattern of specific areas of learning disability (LD) in neurologically normal children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (< or = 800 g) who have broadly average intelligence compared with full-term children with normal birth weight of comparable sociodemographic background, and to explore concurrent cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare biobehavioral responses to acute pain at 4 months' corrected age between former extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and term-born controls. METHODOLOGY Measures of facial behavioral and cardiac autonomic reactivity in 21 former ELBW infants (mean birth weight = 763 g) were compared with term-born infants (n = 24) during(More)
BACKGROUND Management of pain in very low birth weight infants is limited by a lack of empiric knowledge about the multiple determinants of biobehavioral reactivity in infants receiving neonatal intensive care. OBJECTIVE To examine relationship of early neonatal factors and previous medication exposure to subsequent biobehavioral reactivity to acute pain(More)