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OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence and pattern of specific areas of learning disability (LD) in neurologically normal children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (< or = 800 g) who have broadly average intelligence compared with full-term children with normal birth weight of comparable sociodemographic background, and to explore concurrent cognitive(More)
Resting cortical activity is characterized by a distinct spectral peak in the alpha frequency range. Slowing of this oscillatory peak toward the upper theta-band has been associated with a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions and has been attributed to altered thalamocortical dynamics. Children born very preterm exhibit altered(More)
The impact of invasive procedures on preterm neonates has received little systematic attention. We examined facial activity, body movements, and physiological measures in 56 preterm and full-term newborns in response to heel lancing, along with comparison preparatory and recovery intervals. The measures were recorded in special care and full-term nurseries(More)
Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study(More)
Eight children with clinical and radiologic abnormalities consistent with periventricular leukomalacia were investigated with MR imaging of the brain that employed both inversion-recovery and T2-weighted spin-echo imaging sequences. The more precise delineation of white and gray matter on inversion-recovery images as compared with CT allows a detailed(More)
Assessment of infant pain is a pressing concern, especially within the context of neonatal intensive care where infants may be exposed to prolonged and repeated pain during lengthy hospitalization. In the present study the feasibility of carrying out the complete Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) in real time at bedside, specifically reliability,(More)
BACKGROUND Management of pain in very low birth weight infants is limited by a lack of empiric knowledge about the multiple determinants of biobehavioral reactivity in infants receiving neonatal intensive care. OBJECTIVE To examine relationship of early neonatal factors and previous medication exposure to subsequent biobehavioral reactivity to acute pain(More)
Procedural pain in the neonatal intensive care unit triggers a cascade of physiological, behavioral and hormonal disruptions which may contribute to altered neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm, who undergo prolonged hospitalization at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development. The aim of this study was to examine relationships(More)
OBJECTIVES Stress systems may be altered in the long term in preterm infants for multiple reasons, including early exposure to procedural pain in neonatal intensive care. This question has received little attention beyond hospital discharge. Stress responses (cortisol) to visual novelty in preterm infants who were born at extremely low gestational age(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the developmental trajectory of cortisol levels in preterm infants after hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN In a cohort of 225 infants (gestational age at birth <33 weeks) basal salivary cortisol levels were compared in infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA, 23-28 weeks), very low gestational age (29-32 weeks),(More)