Michael F. Whitfield

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Resting cortical activity is characterized by a distinct spectral peak in the alpha frequency range. Slowing of this oscillatory peak toward the upper theta-band has been associated with a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions and has been attributed to altered thalamocortical dynamics. Children born very preterm exhibit altered(More)
Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study(More)
The impact of invasive procedures on preterm neonates has received little systematic attention. We examined facial activity, body movements, and physiological measures in 56 preterm and full-term newborns in response to heel lancing, along with comparison preparatory and recovery intervals. The measures were recorded in special care and full-term nurseries(More)
Assessment of infant pain is a pressing concern, especially within the context of neonatal intensive care where infants may be exposed to prolonged and repeated pain during lengthy hospitalization. In the present study the feasibility of carrying out the complete Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) in real time at bedside, specifically reliability,(More)
There is evidence that the developmental trajectory of cortisol secretion in preterm infants is altered, with elevated basal cortisol levels observed postnatally through at least 18 months corrected age (CA). This alteration is possibly due to neonatal pain-related stress. High cortisol levels might contribute to greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment.(More)
Facial activity is strikingly visible in infants reacting to noxious events. Two measures that reduce this activity to composite events, the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), were used to examine facial expressions of 56 neonates responding to routine heel lancing for blood sampling purposes. The NFCS focuses(More)
High-technology medical care of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants (< 1001 g) involves repeated medical interventions which are potentially painful and may later affect reaction to pain. At 18 months corrected age (CCA), we examined parent ratings of pain sensitivity and how pain sensitivity ratings related to child temperament and parenting style in(More)
Procedural pain in the neonatal intensive care unit triggers a cascade of physiological, behavioral and hormonal disruptions which may contribute to altered neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm, who undergo prolonged hospitalization at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development. The aim of this study was to examine relationships(More)
Eight children with clinical and radiologic abnormalities consistent with periventricular leukomalacia were investigated with MR imaging of the brain that employed both inversion-recovery and T2-weighted spin-echo imaging sequences. The more precise delineation of white and gray matter on inversion-recovery images as compared with CT allows a detailed(More)
Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years were examined comparing two groups of children who had experienced different exposure to nociceptive procedures in the neonatal period: extremely low birthweight (ELBW) < or = 1000 g (N = 47) and full birthweight (FBW) > or = 2500 g (N = 37). The 24 pictures that comprise the Pediatric Pain Inventory,(More)