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Meibum is the primary component of the tear film lipid layer. Thought to play a role in tear film stabilization, understanding the physical properties of meibum and how they change with disease will be valuable in identifying dry eye treatment targets. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity were applied to meibum films at an air-water(More)
Langmuir monolayers of straight-chain and branched hexadecanol and eicosanol mixtures were previously studied using surface pressure- area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial rheology. In this paper, we investigate the structure of these fatty alcohol mixtures using these previous results together with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity(More)
Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high-performance energy storage systems because they have a high theoretical specific energy, low cost, and are eco-friendly. However, the structural and morphological changes during electrochemical reactions are still not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries(More)
Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are(More)
Organic semiconductors that can be fabricated by simple processing techniques and possess excellent electrical performance, are key requirements in the progress of organic electronics. Both high semiconductor charge-carrier mobility, optimized through understanding and control of the semiconductor microstructure, and stability of the semiconductor to(More)
Morphological characterization has been used to explain the previously observed strong correlation between charge carrier mobility measured with thin-film transistors and the number-average molecular weight (MW) of the conjugated polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the low-mobility, low-MW(More)
Conjugated polymer chains have many degrees of conformational freedom and interact weakly with each other, resulting in complex microstructures in the solid state. Understanding charge transport in such systems, which have amorphous and ordered phases exhibiting varying degrees of order, has proved difficult owing to the contribution of electronic processes(More)