Michael F Toney

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Circuits based on organic semiconductors are being actively explored for flexible, transparent and low-cost electronic applications. But to realize such applications, the charge carrier mobilities of solution-processed organic semiconductors must be improved. For inorganic semiconductors, a general method of increasing charge carrier mobility is to(More)
Morphological characterization has been used to explain the previously observed strong correlation between charge carrier mobility measured with thin-film transistors and the number-average molecular weight (MW) of the conjugated polymer regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the low-mobility, low-MW(More)
We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers with the conventional electron acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to fullerenes with one to three indene adducts. We find that the multiadduct fullerenes with lower electron affinity improve the efficiency of the solar cells only when they do not intercalate between the polymer side(More)
PURPOSE We explore the unique rheological and structural properties of human and bovine meibomian lipids to provide insight into the physical behavior of the human tear-film lipid layer (TFLL). METHODS Bulk rheological properties of pooled meibomian lipids were measured by a commercial stress-controlled rheometer; a home-built interfacial stress rheometer(More)
Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe(More)
The self-assembly of nanocrystals enables new classes of materials whose properties are controlled by the periodicities of the assembly, as well as by the size, shape, and composition of the nanocrystals. While self-assembly of spherical nanoparticles has advanced significantly in the past decade, assembly of rod-shaped nanocrystals has seen limited(More)
Substantial in-plane crystallinity and dominant face-on stacking are observed in thin films of a high-mobility n-type rylene-thiophene copolymer. Spun films of the polymer, previously thought to have little or no order are found to exhibit an ordered microstructure at both interfaces, and in the bulk. The implications of this type of packing and crystalline(More)
The study of first-order structural transformations has been of great interest to scientists in many disciplines. Expectations from phase-transition theory are that the system fluctuates between two equilibrium structures near the transition point and that the region of transition broadens in small crystals. We report the direct observation of structural(More)
Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals that a pentacene monolayer, grown on an amorphous SiO2 substrate that is commonly used as a dielectric layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), is crystalline. A preliminary energy-minimized model of the monolayer, based on the GIXD data, reveals that the pentacene molecules adopt a herringbone arrangement(More)