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To examine the influence of two different probiotic bacteria on the humoral immune system of swine, two animal studies were carried out with sows and their litters. The sows' feed was supplemented with either Enterococcusfaecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) or Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 beginning early in pregnancy. The total IgA content in the faeces as(More)
OBJECTIVE The application of inflammation-regulated therapeutic gene expression in arthritis conditions increases the efficiency of gene therapy by self-limiting the transgene. Incidentally, constitutive overexpression of transgenes typically leads to detrimental effects in disease conditions; therefore, regulation of expression is warranted. We undertook(More)
The influence of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium SF68 on the immune system and the intestinal colonization of pigs were determined in a feeding experiment with sows and piglets. Mucosal immunity of the developing piglets was monitored by isolation and detection of intestinal lymphocyte cell populations from the proximal jejunal epithelium and(More)
The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is acylated with long-chain fatty acids. In this study we have used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of cloned cDNA and a simian virus 40 expression system to determine the fatty acid binding site in HA and to examine possible functions of covalently linked fatty(More)
The timing of the attachment of fatty acids to the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus was studied. Treatment of virus infected cells with brefeldin A (BFA), a drug which blocks intracellular transport along the exocytic pathway at a pre-Golgi site, does not prevent palmitoylation of HA. The relationship of HA-palmitoylation to the oligomerisation and(More)
We report remarkable differences in the fatty acid content of thioester-type acylated glycoproteins of enveloped viruses from mammalian cells. The E2 glycoprotein of Semliki Forest virus contains mainly palmitic acid like most other palmitoylated proteins analysed so far. However, the other glycoprotein (E1) of the same virus, as well as the HEF(More)
We present evidence that the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza B virus and the glycoprotein of influenza C virus (HEF) are acylated. The fatty acid linkage is sensitive to treatment with hydroxylamine and mercaptoethanol, which points to a labile thioester-type linkage. The HA of influenza B virus contains mainly palmitic acid, whereas the HEF glycoprotein of(More)
Tunicamycin, a new antibiotic, halts the formation of physical particles of Semliki forest and fowl plague virus, whereas avian oncornavirus particles which show a reduction in infectivity and do not contain detectable labeled glycoprotein are released in the presence of the drug. In Semliki forest virus-infected cells only the protein moieties of the(More)