Michael F. Schmid

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A cytogenetic study performed on a population of the South American leptodactylid frog Eleutherodactylus maussi revealed multiple sex chromosomes of the X1X1X2X2♀/X1X2Y♂ (=XXAA♀/XXAY♂) type. The diploid chromosome number is 2n=36 in all females and 2n=35 in most males. The multiple sex chromosomes originated by a centric fusion between the original Y(More)
The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola. The obtained 27 isolates could be subdivided into eight phylogenetically different clusters based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rDNA genes. The sponge isolates were affiliated with the low(More)
The genes that determine the development of the male or female sex are known in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and most mammals. In many other organisms the existence of sex-determining factors has been shown by genetic evidence but the genes are unknown. We have found that in the fish medaka the Y chromosome-specific region spans only about 280 kb. It(More)
The structure of the water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a protein (Bchl protein) from the green photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii has been refined at 1.9 A resolution to a crystallographic residual of 18.9%. The refinement was carried out without knowledge of the amino acid sequence and has led to an "X-ray sequence". The structure consists(More)
A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of(More)
Mouse chromosomes possessing multiple Robertsonian rearrangements (Rb chromosomes) have been examined using fluorescencein situ hybridization with the telomeric consensus sequence (TTAGGG)n. No hybridization signals were detected at the primary constriction of Rb chromosomes. This observation leads us to conclude that the formation of Rb chromosomes in the(More)
The adenosine analogue 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) unravels the compact nucleoli to necklace-like structures when applied to living cells. The nucleolar beads contain RNA polymerase I (RPI) and argyrophilic proteins, both properties considered to be characteristic of ribosomal gene activity. Each granule is supposed to represent a(More)
Sequencing of the human Y chromosome has uncovered the peculiarities of the genomic organization of a heterogametic sex chromosome of old evolutionary age, and has led to many insights into the evolutionary changes that occurred during its long history. We have studied the genomic organization of the medaka fish Y chromosome, which is one of the youngest(More)
Sperm chromosome analysis offers the opportunity to gather information about the origin of chromosome aberrations in human germ cells. Over the last 20 years more than 20 000 sperm chromosome complements from normal donors and almost 6000 spermatozoa from men with constitutional chromosome aberrations (inversions, translocations) have been analyzed for(More)