Michael F. Schmid

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A cytogenetic study performed on a population of the South American leptodactylid frog Eleutherodactylus maussi revealed multiple sex chromosomes of the X1X1X2X2♀/X1X2Y♂ (=XXAA♀/XXAY♂) type. The diploid chromosome number is 2n=36 in all females and 2n=35 in most males. The multiple sex chromosomes originated by a centric fusion between the original Y(More)
The genes that determine the development of the male or female sex are known in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and most mammals. In many other organisms the existence of sex-determining factors has been shown by genetic evidence but the genes are unknown. We have found that in the fish medaka the Y chromosome-specific region spans only about 280 kb. It(More)
Given that a large proportion of the bacteria colonizing the roots of plants is capable of producing N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules, it appears likely that these bacterial pheromones may serve as signals for communication between cells of different species. In this study, we have developed and characterized novel Gfp-based monitor strains that(More)
A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of(More)
The structure of the water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll a protein (Bchl protein) from the green photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii has been refined at 1.9 A resolution to a crystallographic residual of 18.9%. The refinement was carried out without knowledge of the amino acid sequence and has led to an "X-ray sequence". The structure consists(More)
Sequencing of the human Y chromosome has uncovered the peculiarities of the genomic organization of a heterogametic sex chromosome of old evolutionary age, and has led to many insights into the evolutionary changes that occurred during its long history. We have studied the genomic organization of the medaka fish Y chromosome, which is one of the youngest(More)
Mouse chromosomes possessing multiple Robertsonian rearrangements (Rb chromosomes) have been examined using fluorescencein situ hybridization with the telomeric consensus sequence (TTAGGG)n. No hybridization signals were detected at the primary constriction of Rb chromosomes. This observation leads us to conclude that the formation of Rb chromosomes in the(More)
In an ecological survey of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere and as endophytes of sugarcane, maize and teosinte plants in Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, a new phylogenetically homogeneous group of N(2)-fixing bacteria was identified within the genus Burkholderia. This polyphasic taxonomic study included microscopic and colony(More)
Bacterial proliferations have recurrently been observed for the past 15 years in fermentor cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N, suggesting the presence of cryptic bacteria in the collection culture of this fungus. In this study, intracellular bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with confocal(More)