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Mutations are a double-edged sword: they are the ultimate source of genetic variation upon which evolution depends, yet most mutations affecting fitness (viability and reproductive success) appear to be harmful. Deleterious mutations of small effect can escape natural selection, and should accumulate in small population. Reduced fitness from(More)
Since the year 2000, a concerted campaign against malaria has led to unprecedented levels of intervention coverage across sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the effect of this control effort is vital to inform future control planning. However, the effect of malaria interventions across the varied epidemiological settings of Africa remains poorly understood(More)
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control are widespread but coverage remains inadequate. We developed a Bayesian model using data from 102 national surveys, triangulated against delivery data and distribution reports, to generate year-by-year estimates of four ITN coverage indicators. We explored the impact of two potential 'inefficiencies':(More)
In April 2009, an outbreak due to infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) was investigated in a New York City high school. We surveyed household contacts of ill students to characterize the extent of transmission within households, identify contact groups at highest risk for illness, and assess the potential for preventing(More)
Foodborne outbreaks from contaminated fresh produce have been increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This reflects a convergence of increasing consumption of fresh produce, changes in production and distribution, and a growing awareness of the problem on the part of public health officials. The complex biology of pathogen contamination and(More)
BACKGROUND The implementation of treated municipal water systems in the 20th century led to a dramatic decrease in waterborne disease in the United States. However, communities with deficient water systems still experience waterborne outbreaks. In August 2004, we investigated an outbreak of gastroenteritis on South Bass Island, Ohio, an island of 900(More)
Current ring perception algorithms for use on chemical graphs concentrate on processing specific structures. In this review, the various published ring perception algorithms are classified according to the initial ring set obtained, and each algorithm or method of perception is described in detail. The final ring sets obtained are discussed in terms of(More)
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) can all negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. Preconception counseling about such effects can reduce the risks posed by these pathogens. Informing women of childbearing age about these pathogens and how to prevent their negative effects can help women make(More)
Although pasteurization eliminates pathogens and consumption of nonpasteurized dairy products is uncommon, dairy-associated disease outbreaks continue to occur. To determine the association of outbreaks caused by nonpasteurized dairy products with state laws regarding sale of these products, we reviewed dairy-associated outbreaks during 1993-2006. We found(More)
Salmonella Newport causes more than an estimated 100,000 infections annually in the United States. In 2002, tomatoes grown and packed on the eastern shore of Virginia contaminated with a pan-susceptible S. Newport strain caused illness in 510 patients in 26 states. In July-November 2005, the same strain caused illness in at least 72 patients in 16 states.(More)