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Activation of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels contributes to action potential electrogenesis in neurons. Antisense oligonucleotide studies directed against Na(v)1.8 have shown that this channel contributes to experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We report here the discovery of A-803467, a sodium channel blocker that potently blocks(More)
Antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) targeting the Nav 1.8 sodium channel have been reported to decrease inflammatory hyperalgesia and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. The present studies were conducted to further characterize Nav 1.8 AS antinociceptive profile in rats to better understand the role of Nav 1.8 in(More)
1-Benzyl-5-aryltetrazoles were discovered to be novel antagonists for the P2X(7) receptor. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were conducted around both the benzyl and phenyl moieties. In addition, the importance of the regiochemical substitution on the tetrazole was examined. Compounds were evaluated for activity to inhibit calcium flux in both(More)
P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels with important roles in diverse pathophysiological processes. Substantial progress has been made in the last few years with the discovery of both subunit selective antagonists and modulators. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the advances in the pharmacology of P2X receptors, with key properties(More)
ATP-sensitive P2X(7) receptors are localized on cells of immunological origin including glial cells in the central nervous system. Activation of P2X(7) receptors leads to rapid changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and following prolonged agonist exposure, cytolytic plasma(More)
P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are highly localized on peripheral and central processes of sensory afferent nerves, and activation of these channels contributes to the pronociceptive effects of ATP. A-317491 is a novel non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor activation. A-317491 potently blocked recombinant human and rat P2X3 and P2X2/3(More)
The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1, TRPV1), which is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily, is highly localized on peripheral and central processes of nociceptive afferent fibers. Activation of TRPV1 contributes to the pronociceptive effects of capsaicin, protons, heat, and various endogenous lipid agonists such as anandamide and(More)
Pain is a major unmet medical need which has been causally linked to changes in sodium channel expression, modulation, or mutations that alter channel gating properties or current density in nociceptor neurons. Voltage-gated sodium channels activate (open) then rapidly inactivate in response to a depolarization of the plasma membrane of excitable cells(More)
ATP functions as a fast neurotransmitter through the specific activation of a family of ligand-gated ion channels termed P2X receptors. In this report, six distinct recombinant P2X receptor subtypes were pharmacologically characterized in a heterologous expression system devoid of endogenous P2 receptor activity. cDNAs encoding four human P2X receptor(More)
Nociceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are activated by extracellular ATP, implicating P2X receptors as potential mediators of painful stimuli. However, the P2X receptor subtype(s) underlying this activity remain in question. Using electrophysiological techniques, the effects of P2X receptor agonists and antagonists were examined on acutely(More)