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Satellite cells reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers and include cells that act as precursors for muscle growth and repair. Although they share a common anatomical localization and typically are considered a homogeneous population, satellite cells actually exhibit substantial heterogeneity. We used cell-surface marker expression to(More)
Parabiosis experiments indicate that impaired regeneration in aged mice is reversible by exposure to a young circulation, suggesting that young blood contains humoral "rejuvenating" factors that can restore regenerative function. Here, we demonstrate that the circulating protein growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal(More)
5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can be activated in response to cellular fuel depletion and leads to switching off ATP-consuming pathways and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways in many cell types. We have hypothesized that AMPK is a central mediator of insulin-independent glucose transport, which enables fuel-depleted muscle cells to take up(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is proposed to stimulate fat and carbohydrate catabolism to maintain cellular energy status. Recent studies demonstrate that pharmacologic activation of AMPK and mutations in the enzyme are associated with elevated muscle glycogen content in vivo. Our purpose was to determine the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen(More)
OBJECTIVE TBC1D1 is a member of the TBC1 Rab-GTPase family of proteins and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Insulin and contraction increase TBC1D1 phosphorylation on phospho-Akt substrate motifs (PASs), but the function of TBC1D1 in muscle is not known. Genetic linkage analyses show a TBC1D1 R125W missense variant confers risk for severe obesity in(More)
Metformin is an effective hypoglycemic drug that lowers blood glucose concentrations by decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing glucose disposal in skeletal muscle; however, the molecular site of metformin action is not well understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity increases in response to depletion of cellular energy stores,(More)
Insulin, contraction, and the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), all increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Some reports suggest that NO is a critical mediator of insulin- and/or contraction-stimulated transport. To determine if the mechanism leading to NO-stimulated glucose uptake is similar to the insulin- or(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in response to acute changes in cellular energy status in cardiac and skeletal muscles, results in altered substrate utilization. We hypothesized that chronic alterations in myocardial energetics in hypertrophied hearts (left ventricular(More)
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor with important roles in regulating innate immune and inflammatory responses. NF-κB is activated through the phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IκB, by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Physical exercise elicits changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, yet signaling cascades and transcription factors involved(More)
OBJECTIVE We determined whether muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the development of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle-specific transgenic mice expressing an inactive form of the AMPK alpha2 catalytic subunit (alpha2i TG) and their wild-type littermates were fed either a high-fat (60% kcal fat) or a control (10%(More)