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Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with(More)
BACKGROUND Recent experimental findings indicate that newborn rats are quite susceptible to the reinforcing properties of ethanol (EtOH). The basis seems to be more pharmacological than gustatory, olfactory, or caloric as a single pairing of a surrogate nipple providing water with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of EtOH results in conditioned attachment(More)
Toward understanding why infant rats ingest high levels of ethanol without initiation procedures, the authors tested effects of mu and kappa receptor antagonists on ethanol reinforcement in neonatal rats. After an intracisternal injection of CTOP (micro antagonist), nor-Binaltorphimine (kappa antagonist), or saline, newborn (3-hr-old) rats were given(More)
Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive(More)
The present study examined responsiveness of newborn rats to a surrogate nipple providing fluids with basic tastes (sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and assessed the effects of this first gustatory experience on subsequent responding to the nipple itself (empty nipple) or the nipple providing water. Responsiveness (attachment to and ingestion from a surrogate(More)
BACKGROUND Newborn rat pups readily ingest ethanol of low to moderate concentrations and are sensitive to its reinforcing effects. Given that early ethanol exposure can promote its future abuse, it is vital to discover the mechanisms behind reinforcing effects of ethanol at this stage of life. METHODS Cesarean-delivered 3- to 4-hour-old rat pups were(More)
It is yet unclear if ethanol-induced motor stimulation in the open field (OF) merely reflects psychomotor stimulating effects of the drug or if this stimulation is driven or modulated by ethanol's antianxiety properties. In the present study, adolescent rats were administered with different ethanol doses or remained untreated. They were sequentially(More)
Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during(More)
Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects(More)
The role of endogenous opioid system in learning (Pavlovian conditioning) and reinforcement was studied in newborn rats by pairing central injection of dynorphin A (1-13), an endogenous ligand with high affinity for kappa opioid receptors, with a surrogate nipple. For conditioning, the nipple served as the conditioned stimulus and dynorphin as the(More)