Michael Eduard Nizhnikov

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Toward understanding why infant rats ingest high levels of ethanol without initiation procedures, the authors tested effects of mu and kappa receptor antagonists on ethanol reinforcement in neonatal rats. After an intracisternal injection of CTOP (micro antagonist), nor-Binaltorphimine (kappa antagonist), or saline, newborn (3-hr-old) rats were given(More)
Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive(More)
Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with(More)
BACKGROUND Newborn rat pups readily ingest ethanol of low to moderate concentrations and are sensitive to its reinforcing effects. Given that early ethanol exposure can promote its future abuse, it is vital to discover the mechanisms behind reinforcing effects of ethanol at this stage of life. METHODS Cesarean-delivered 3- to 4-hour-old rat pups were(More)
Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects(More)
Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during(More)
The role of endogenous opioid system in learning (Pavlovian conditioning) and reinforcement was studied in newborn rats by pairing central injection of dynorphin A (1-13), an endogenous ligand with high affinity for kappa opioid receptors, with a surrogate nipple. For conditioning, the nipple served as the conditioned stimulus and dynorphin as the(More)
We recently observed that naloxone, a non-specific opioid antagonist, attenuated operant responding to ethanol in infant rats. Through the use of an operant conditioning technique, we aimed to analyze the specific participation of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors on ethanol reinforcement during the second postnatal week. In Experiment 1, infant rats(More)
The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature(More)
Ethanol's motivational consequences have been related to the actions of acetaldehyde, a metabolic product of ethanol oxidation. The present study assessed the role of acetaldehyde in the motivational effects of ethanol on preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 pups (postnatal days 13-14, PD 13-14) were given systemic administration of D-penicillamine (DP, a drug(More)