Michael Eduard Nizhnikov

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Toward understanding why infant rats ingest high levels of ethanol without initiation procedures, the authors tested effects of mu and kappa receptor antagonists on ethanol reinforcement in neonatal rats. After an intracisternal injection of CTOP (micro antagonist), nor-Binaltorphimine (kappa antagonist), or saline, newborn (3-hr-old) rats were given(More)
Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with(More)
BACKGROUND Newborn rat pups readily ingest ethanol of low to moderate concentrations and are sensitive to its reinforcing effects. Given that early ethanol exposure can promote its future abuse, it is vital to discover the mechanisms behind reinforcing effects of ethanol at this stage of life. METHODS Cesarean-delivered 3- to 4-hour-old rat pups were(More)
Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after(More)
Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during(More)
Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during(More)
A recent study found appetitive reinforcement in infant rats given 1.0 but not 2.0 g/kg ethanol and only when ethanol was delivered intragastrically (i.g., but not if intraperitoneally, i.p.; Nizhnikov, Pautassi, Truxell, & Spear [2009] Alcohol 43, 347-358). Corticosterone release could modulate ethanol's motivational effects. The goal of this study was to(More)
Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects(More)
Ethanol's motivational consequences have been related to the actions of acetaldehyde, a metabolic product of ethanol oxidation. The present study assessed the role of acetaldehyde in the motivational effects of ethanol on preweanling rats. In Experiment 1 pups (postnatal days 13-14, PD 13-14) were given systemic administration of D-penicillamine (DP, a drug(More)
The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature(More)