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Several eye-field transcription factors (EFTFs) are expressed in the anterior region of the vertebrate neural plate and are essential for eye formation. The Xenopus EFTFs ET, Rx1, Pax6, Six3, Lhx2, tll and Optx2 are expressed in a dynamic, overlapping pattern in the presumptive eye field. Expression of an EFTF cocktail with Otx2 is sufficient to induce(More)
Overexpression of XOptx2, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor expressed in the Xenopus embryonic eye field, results in a dramatic increase in eye size. An XOptx2-Engrailed repressor gives a similar phenotype, while an XOptx2-VP16 activator reduces eye size. XOptx2 stimulates bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and XOptx2-induced eye enlargement is(More)
The mature vertebrate retina contains seven major cell types that develop from an apparently homogenous population of precursor cells. Clonal analyses have suggested that environmental influences play a major role in specifying retinal cell identity. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is present in the developing retina and regulates the survival, proliferation and(More)
Vertebrate eyes begin as a small patch of cells at the most anterior end of the early brain called the eye field. If these cells are removed from an amphibian embryo, the eyes do not form. If the eye field is transplanted to another location on the embryo or cultured in a dish, it forms eyes. These simple cut and paste experiments were performed at the(More)
Photoreceptor and bipolar cells are molecularly related cell types in the vertebrate retina. XOtx5b is expressed in both photoreceptors and bipolars, while a closely related member of the same family of transcription factors, XOtx2, is expressed in bipolar cells only. Lipofection of retinal precursors with XOtx5b biases them toward photoreceptor fates(More)
The cysteine-rich FGF receptor (CFR) is a 150-kD membrane-associated glycoprotein that specifically binds FGFs. CFR protein is not detectable at the cell surface and immunocytochemistry with anti-CFR antibodies demonstrates that CFR is concentrated in the Golgi apparatus. These data suggest CFR does not function as a plasma membrane FGF receptor. CFR(More)
Members of the LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) family of proteins are double zinc-finger containing transcription factors with important functions in pattern formation and cell lineage determination. The LIM-HD family member Lhx2 is required for normal eye, liver, and central nervous system formation. Lhx2(-/-) mice lack eyes, and experiments in Xenopus predict(More)
Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if(More)
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of seven members whose activities are thought to be mediated by multiple receptors. Here we describe the cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of a cysteine-rich FGF receptor (CFR) that is distinct from previously identified FGF receptors. The deduced amino acid sequence for CFR suggests that it is(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of nine proteins that bind to three distinct types of cell surface molecules: (i) FGF receptor tyrosine kinases (FGFR-1 through FGFR-4); (ii) a cysteine-rich FGF receptor (CFR); and (iii) heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Signaling by FGFs requires participation of at least two of these receptors: the FGFRs(More)