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Persistent accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in the pulmonary artery adventitial/perivascular areas of animals and humans with pulmonary hypertension has been documented. The cellular mechanisms contributing to chronic inflammatory responses remain unclear. We hypothesized that perivascular inflammation is perpetuated by activated adventitial(More)
BACKGROUND Successful autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation into infarcted myocardium in a variety of animal models has demonstrated improvement in cardiac function. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of transplanting autologous myoblasts into infarcted myocardium of patients undergoing concurrent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or left(More)
Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are(More)
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a frequently fatal disease whose pathobiology is poorly understood. Monoclonal endothelial cell growth is present within plexiform lesions of patients with PPH but not secondary PH because of congenital heart malformations. We hypothesized that endothelial cells within PPH plexiform lesions harbor mutations permissive(More)
Mutations in transforming growth factor-beta family receptor-II, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2, and activin-like kinase-1 have been associated with pulmonary hypertension. In the present study, we determined that pulmonary arteries in normal lungs and in lungs of patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension comparably(More)
Chronic inflammation is an important component of the fibroproliferative changes that characterise pulmonary hypertensive vasculopathy. Fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodelling in settings of chronic inflammation, including animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We sought to determine whether circulating fibrocytes were increased in children and(More)
Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated(More)
Pulmonary hypertension remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Although there is currently no cure, descriptions of defective intracellular trafficking and protein misfolding in vascular cell models of pulmonary hypertension have been recently reported. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) would be(More)
Mutations in transforming growth factor-β family receptor-II, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 and Activin-like kinase1 have been associated with pulmonary hypertension. In the present study, we determined that pulmonary arteries in normal lungs and in lungs of patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension comparably expressed(More)
Genomics, or the study of genes and their function, is a burgeoning field with many new technologies. In the present review, we explore the application of genomic approaches to the study of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Candidate genes, important to the pathobiology of the disease, have been investigated. Rodent models enable the manipulation of selected(More)