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BACKGROUND & AIMS Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5(+) stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5(+) stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5(+) stem cells. METHODS We used multicolor(More)
Actin and microtubules (MTs) are tightly coordinated during neuronal growth cone navigation and are dynamically regulated in response to guidance cues; however, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we characterize Drosophila pod-1 (dpod1) and show that purified Dpod1 can crosslink both actin and MTs. In cultured S2 cells, Dpod1(More)
The mouse tumor cell line alpha TC1-6 was used as a model system to examine the post-translational processing of proglucagon. Determination of the mouse preproglucagon cDNA sequence and comparison with the published sequences of rat and human preproglucagons revealed nucleic acid homologies of 89.1 and 84%, respectively, and amino acid homologies of 94 and(More)
Interest in single-cell whole-transcriptome analysis is growing rapidly, especially for profiling rare or heterogeneous populations of cells. We compared commercially available single-cell RNA amplification methods with both microliter and nanoliter volumes, using sequence from bulk total RNA and multiplexed quantitative PCR as benchmarks to systematically(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobacter pylori infection is the main risk factor for gastric cancer. We characterized the interactions of H pylori with gastric epithelial progenitor and stem cells in humans and mice and investigated how these interactions contribute to H pylori-induced pathology. METHODS We used quantitative confocal microscopy and 3-dimensional(More)
Cancer is often viewed as a caricature of normal developmental processes, but the extent to which its cellular heterogeneity truly recapitulates multilineage differentiation processes of normal tissues remains unknown. Here we implement single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis to dissect the cellular composition of primary human normal colon and colon(More)
During mitosis of multiple types of precursor cells in Drosophila, Numb is asymmetrically distributed between the two daughter cells and confers distinct daughter cell fates. Here we report the identification of a novel gene product, Partner of Numb (PON), based on its physical interaction with Numb. PON is asymmetrically localized during mitosis and(More)
To further examine the physiological roles of the neuroendocrine prohormone convertases (PCs) in proglucagon processing, alpha TC1-6 cells were transiently transfected with PC1/3 and PC2 expression vectors containing either antisense or sense encoding cDNAs. PC1/3- and PC2-directed RIAs were used to determine that the PC1/3 antisense transfections lowered(More)
"Bulk" measurements of antiviral innate immune responses from pooled cells yield averaged signals and do not reveal underlying signaling heterogeneity in infected and bystander single cells. We examined such heterogeneity in the small intestine during rotavirus (RV) infection. Murine RV EW robustly activated type I IFNs and several antiviral genes(More)