Actin and microtubules (MTs) are tightly coordinated during neuronal growth cone navigation and are dynamically regulated in response to guidance cues; however, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we characterize Drosophila pod-1 (dpod1) and show that purified Dpod1 can crosslink both actin and MTs. In cultured S2 cells, Dpod1… (More)
Cancer is often viewed as a caricature of normal developmental processes, but the extent to which its cellular heterogeneity truly recapitulates multilineage differentiation processes of normal tissues remains unknown. Here we implement single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis to dissect the cellular composition of primary human normal colon and colon… (More)
It has been postulated that there is a link between inflammation and cancer. Here we describe a role for cell-intrinsic toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2; which is involved in inflammatory response) signalling in normal intestinal and mammary epithelial cells and oncogenesis. The downstream effectors of TLR2 are expressed by normal intestinal and mammary… (More)
Gene profiling experiments have revealed similarities between cancer and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Kim et al. (2010) dissect the gene expression signature of ES cells into three functional modules and find that the Myc module, including genes targeted by Myc-interacting proteins, accounts for most of the similarity between ES and cancer cells.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors have advanced colon cancer treatment. We investigated the role of the RTK KIT in development of human colon cancer. METHODS An array of 137 patient-derived colon tumors and their associated xenografts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to measure levels of KIT and its ligand KITLG. KIT and/or… (More)
A patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis presented with fever, anorexia, and nausea shortly after starting oral lanthanum carbonate for phosphate control. Gastric and duodenal biopsies demonstrated diffuse histiocytosis with intracellular aggregates of basophilic foreign material. Transmission electron microscopy, an underutilized… (More)
There is a revolution in the ability to analyze gene expression of single cells in a tissue. To understand this data we must comprehend how cells are distributed in a high-dimensional gene expression space. One open question is whether cell types form discrete clusters or whether gene expression forms a continuum of states. If such a continuum exists, what… (More)