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Neurofilaments (NFs) have been proposed to interact with one another through mutual steric exclusion of their unstructured C-terminal "sidearm" domains, producing order in axonal NF distributions and conferring mechanical strength to the axon. Here we apply theory developed for polymer brushes to examine the relationship between the brush properties of the(More)
Proteins can be denatured by pressures of a few hundred MPa. This finding apparently contradicts the most widely used model of protein stability, where the formation of a hydrophobic core drives protein folding. The pressure denaturation puzzle is resolved by focusing on the pressure-dependent transfer of water into the protein interior, in contrast to the(More)
UNLABELLED Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and shed vesicles, have been implicated in intercellular communication; however, their biomarker potential is less clear. Therefore, EVs derived from MCF7 and MCF10A cells were analyzed to identify unique miRNA (miR) profiles that distinguish their origin. One characteristic common to the miR(More)
Probabilities of numbers of ligands proximal to an ion lead to simple, general formulae for the free energy of ion selectivity between different media. That free energy does not depend on the definition of an inner shell for ligand-counting, but other quantities of mechanistic interest do. If analysis is restricted to a specific coordination number, then(More)
Intrinsically disordered proteins are an important class of proteins with unique functions and properties. Here, we have applied a support vector machine (SVM) trained on naturally occurring disordered and ordered proteins to examine the contribution of various parameters (vectors) to recognizing proteins that contain disordered regions. We find that a SVM(More)
Microvesicles are small membrane-bound particles comprised of exosomes and various-sized extracellular vesicles. These are released by several cell types. Microvesicles have a variety of cellular functions from communication to mediating growth and differentiation. Microvesicles contain proteins and nucleic acids. Previously, we showed that plasma(More)
When the axon of a motor neuron is sectioned and visualized by electron microscopy, a two-dimensional distribution of neurofilaments (NFs) with nonrandom spacing is revealed; this ordered arrangement implies the presence of physical interactions between the NFs. To gain insight into the molecular basis of this organization, we characterized NF distributions(More)
UNLABELLED Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) drives fibrogenesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Here we show that CCN2 up-regulation in fibrotic or steatotic livers, or in culture-activated or ethanol-treated primary mouse HSC, is associated with a reciprocal down-regulation of microRNA-214 (miR-214). By using protector or reporter assays to(More)
Anti-dengue T-cell responses have been implicated in both protection and immunopathology. However, most of the T-cell studies for dengue include few epitopes, with limited knowledge of their inter-serotype variation and the breadth of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) affinity. In order to expand our knowledge of HLA-restricted dengue epitopes, we(More)
A theoretical approach is developed to quantify hydrophobic hydration and interactions on a molecular scale, with the goal of insight into the molecular origins of hydrophobic effects. The model is based on the fundamental relation between the probability for cavity formation in bulk water resulting from molecular-scale density fluctuations, and the(More)