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The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) by mammalian mitochondria is important because it underlies oxidative damage in many pathologies and contributes to retrograde redox signalling from the organelle to the cytosol and nucleus. Superoxide (O2(*-)) is the proximal mitochondrial ROS, and in the present review I outline the principles that govern(More)
Epidemiological studies have documented a reduced prevalence of Alzheimer's disease among users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It has been proposed that NSAIDs exert their beneficial effects in part by reducing neurotoxic inflammatory responses in the brain, although this mechanism has not been proved. Here we report that the NSAIDs(More)
The putative oxidation of hydroethidine (HE) has become a widely used fluorescent assay for the detection of superoxide in cultured cells. By covalently joining HE to a hexyl triphenylphosphonium cation (Mito-HE), the HE moiety can be targeted to mitochondria. However, the specificity of HE and Mito-HE for superoxide in vivo is limited by autooxidation as(More)
Mitochondrial oxidative damage contributes to a range of degenerative diseases. Consequently, the selective inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative damage is a promising therapeutic strategy. One way to do this is to invent antioxidants that are selectively accumulated into mitochondria within patients. Such mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have been(More)
ErbB-4 is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. After binding of its ligand heregulin (HRG) or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), the ErbB-4 ectodomain is cleaved by a metalloprotease. We now report a subsequent cleavage by gamma-secretase that(More)
With the recognition of the central role of mitochondria in apoptosis, there is a need to develop specific tools to manipulate mitochondrial function within cells. Here we report on the development of a novel antioxidant that selectively blocks mitochondrial oxidative damage, enabling the roles of mitochondrial oxidative stress in different types of cell(More)
Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that Abeta42 is the initiating molecule in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, the absolute requirement for Abeta42 for amyloid deposition has never been demonstrated in vivo. We have addressed this by developing transgenic models that express Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 in the absence of human amyloid(More)
Antioxidants, such as ubiquinones, are widely used in mitochondrial studies as both potential therapies and useful research tools. However, the effects of exogenous ubiquinones can be difficult to interpret because they can also be pro-oxidants or electron carriers that facilitate respiration. Recently we developed a mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone(More)
Candida albicans is an opportunistic oral pathogen. The flexibility of this microorganism in response to environmental changes includes the expression of a cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. In the present study, we characterized both conventional and alternative respiratory pathways and determined their ADP/O ratios, inhibitor sensitivity(More)
SIGNIFICANCE The mitochondrial matrix contains much of the machinery at the heart of metabolism. This compartment is also exposed to a high and continual flux of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and related reactive species. To protect mitochondria from these sources of oxidative damage, there is an integrated set of thiol systems within the matrix comprising(More)