Michael E. Klepser

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This study was designed to examine the effects of antifungal carryover, agitation, and starting inoculum on the results of time-kill tests conducted with various Candida species. Two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were utilized. Test antifungal agents included fluconazole, amphotericin B, and LY303366. Time-kill(More)
Time-kill curves were determined for three isolates of Candida albicans tested against fluconazole and amphotericin B at multiples of the MIC. Fluconazole produced fungistatic activity, with concentration-related growth effects observed over a narrow range of concentrations. Amphotericin B exhibited fungicidal activity, with enhancement of activity over a(More)
The postantifungal effect (PAFE) of fluconazole, MK-0991, LY303366, and amphotericin B was determined against isolates of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Concentrations ranging from 0. 125 to 4 times the MIC were tested following exposure to the antifungal for 0.25 to 1 h. Combinations of azole and echinocandin antifungals (MK-0991 and(More)
Aerosolized delivery of antimicrobial agents is an attractive option for management of pulmonary infections, as this is an ideal method of providing high local drug concentrations while minimizing systemic exposure. With the paucity of consensus regarding the safety, efficacy, and means with which to use aerosolized antimicrobials, a task force was created(More)
Limited information exists regarding the disposition of ofloxacin in rabbits. Pharmacokinetic information is necessary for the design of appropriate therapeutic regimens for the treatment of organisms (e.g. Pasteurella multocida) commonly infecting this species. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin following intravenous (i.v.) and(More)
Overuse of antifungal agents has resulted in the selection of naturally resistant Candida species, as well as expression of resistance from previously susceptible species resulting from genetic mutations and/or selection of resistant subpopulations. Strategies for the appropriate use of antifungal agents need to be developed to prevent further development(More)
Currently, there is considerable debate regarding the best in vitro method for testing antifungal combinations against Candida spp. In this study, we compared the results obtained by chequerboard dilution, time-kill studies and Etest for several antifungal combinations against Candida spp. Three Candida albicans isolates (fluconazole MICs of 1.0, 32 and(More)
Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal(More)
We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium species with a combination of two non-culture-based techniques: the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide) (XTT) colorimetric reduction assay, and fluorescent(More)