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The postantifungal effect (PAFE) of fluconazole, MK-0991, LY303366, and amphotericin B was determined against isolates of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Concentrations ranging from 0. 125 to 4 times the MIC were tested following exposure to the antifungal for 0.25 to 1 h. Combinations of azole and echinocandin antifungals (MK-0991 and(More)
This study was designed to examine the effects of antifungal carryover, agitation, and starting inoculum on the results of time-kill tests conducted with various Candida species. Two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were utilized. Test antifungal agents included fluconazole, amphotericin B, and LY303366. Time-kill(More)
Overuse of antifungal agents has resulted in the selection of naturally resistant Candida species, as well as expression of resistance from previously susceptible species resulting from genetic mutations and/or selection of resistant subpopulations. Strategies for the appropriate use of antifungal agents need to be developed to prevent further development(More)
Currently, there is considerable debate regarding the best in vitro method for testing antifungal combinations against Candida spp. In this study, we compared the results obtained by chequerboard dilution, time-kill studies and Etest for several antifungal combinations against Candida spp. Three Candida albicans isolates (fluconazole MICs of 1.0, 32 and(More)
Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal(More)
Ninety-eight isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were collected from 30 patients at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from December 1987 through December 1994. The susceptibility of each isolate was determined against fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine. Of the 98 isolates, 53 were recovered from blood, 19 were recovered(More)
We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium species with a combination of two non-culture-based techniques: the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide) (XTT) colorimetric reduction assay, and fluorescent(More)
Amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, and voriconazole alone and in combination were evaluated against isolates of Candida lusitaniae. MICs were determined by broth microdilution and Etest, and time-kill studies were conducted. Amphotericin B resulted in fungicidal activity against most isolates, whereas fluconazole, voriconazole, and flucytosine(More)
We evaluated the in vitro activity of the new echinocandin antifungal micafungin against Candida spp. using microdilution and time-kill methods. Additionally, we examined the postantifungal effect (PAFE) of micafungin. Finally, we evaluated the effect of the addition of serum and plasma on the MIC of micafungin. Four Candida albicans isolates and two(More)
OBJECTIVES To quantify the direct medical costs associated with using vancomycin, as inpatient treatment, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, in four clinical indications: complicated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), bacteremia, infective endocarditis (IE), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A(More)