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This study was designed to examine the effects of antifungal carryover, agitation, and starting inoculum on the results of time-kill tests conducted with various Candida species. Two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were utilized. Test antifungal agents included fluconazole, amphotericin B, and LY303366. Time-kill(More)
Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal(More)
Currently, there is considerable debate regarding the best in vitro method for testing antifungal combinations against Candida spp. In this study, we compared the results obtained by chequerboard dilution, time-kill studies and Etest for several antifungal combinations against Candida spp. Three Candida albicans isolates (fluconazole MICs of 1.0, 32 and(More)
Ninety-eight isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were collected from 30 patients at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from December 1987 through December 1994. The susceptibility of each isolate was determined against fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine. Of the 98 isolates, 53 were recovered from blood, 19 were recovered(More)
OBJECTIVES To quantify the direct medical costs associated with using vancomycin, as inpatient treatment, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, in four clinical indications: complicated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), bacteremia, infective endocarditis (IE), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A(More)
We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium species with a combination of two non-culture-based techniques: the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide) (XTT) colorimetric reduction assay, and fluorescent(More)
Two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were selected for time-kill curve testing against LY 303366 at concentrations ranging from 0.125 x MIC to 16 x MIC. RPMI 1640 buffered morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS) was utilized as growth medium. Samples were obtained at predetermined time points over 24 hours and(More)
Time-kill curves were determined for three isolates of Candida albicans tested against fluconazole and amphotericin B at multiples of the MIC. Fluconazole produced fungistatic activity, with concentration-related growth effects observed over a narrow range of concentrations. Amphotericin B exhibited fungicidal activity, with enhancement of activity over a(More)
The postantifungal effect (PAFE) of fluconazole, MK-0991, LY303366, and amphotericin B was determined against isolates of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Concentrations ranging from 0. 125 to 4 times the MIC were tested following exposure to the antifungal for 0.25 to 1 h. Combinations of azole and echinocandin antifungals (MK-0991 and(More)
We evaluated the demographics and beliefs regarding safety and efficacy of herbal therapy among individuals in Iowa and assessed the willingness to discuss the use of these products with health care providers. We distributed 1300 surveys to two random samples: patients attending eight clinics, and residents of the state (mailing). Data were categorized(More)