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A two-dimensional, J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopic extraction approach was developed employing GAMMA-simulated, LCModel basis-sets. In this approach, a two-dimensional J-resolved (2D-JPRESS) dataset was resolved into a series of one-dimensional spectra where each spectrum was modeled and fitted with its theoretically customized LCModel template.(More)
Racemic fluoxetine consists of R- and S-fluoxetine, which are metabolized to R- and S-norfluoxetine, respectively. This study was designed to compare brain levels achieved with R-fluoxetine to those achieved with racemic fluoxetine in healthy subjects using fluorine-19 (19-F) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In all, 13 healthy volunteers received(More)
Brain stimulation for the treatment of psychiatric disorders has received increasing attention over the past decade. The introduction of experimental means to stimulate the brain noninvasively with magnetic fields not only has raised interest in these novel means of modulating brain activity but also has refocused attention on a mainstay in the treatment of(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to determine if there is an association between brain-to-serum lithium ratios and age. METHOD Lithium-7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure in vivo brain lithium levels in nine children and adolescents (mean age=13.4 years, SD=3.6) and 18 adults (mean age=37.3, SD=9.1) with bipolar disorder. RESULTS Serum(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the potential to provide valuable information about alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and glutamine (Gln) in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to use this technique effectively, it is important to establish the accuracy and reproducibility of the methodology. In this(More)
Despite decades of intensive research, the development of a diagnostic test for major depressive disorder (MDD) had proven to be a formidable and elusive task, with all individual marker-based approaches yielding insufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use. In the present work, we examined the diagnostic performance of a multi-assay,(More)
BACKGROUND Regional brain activity was measured before and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS 6 patients (4 females) with major depression were free of psychotropic medications for at least 2 weeks prior to baseline FDG scans. Patients were treated with bifrontotemporal(More)
OBJECTIVE This study tested whether a relationship exists between concentration and response following discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. METHOD Eight patients with remitted major depression who were taking 20 mg/day of either fluoxetine or paroxetine underwent placebo substitution for 3 days. Serum drug and brain fluorine levels(More)
We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a(More)
BACKGROUND Previously, a biomarker panel was developed for use as an aid to major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis; it consisted of 9 biomarkers associated with the neurotrophic, metabolic, inflammatory, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathways. This panel and associated algorithm produced good clinical sensitivity and specificity (92% and 81%,(More)