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Asymmetry in funnel plots may indicate publication bias in meta-analysis, but the shape of the plot in the absence of bias depends on the choice of axes. We evaluated standard error, precision (inverse of standard error), variance, inverse of variance, sample size and log sample size (vertical axis) and log odds ratio, log risk ratio and risk difference(More)
Much of biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and(More)
Publication and selection biases in meta-analysis are more likely to affect small studies, which also tend to be of lower methodological quality. This may lead to "small-study effects," where the smaller studies in a meta-analysis show larger treatment effects. Small-study effects may also arise because of between-trial heterogeneity. Statistical tests for(More)
BACKGROUND Some randomised controlled trials (RCTs) done in German-speaking Europe are published in international English-language journals and others in national German-language journals. We assessed whether authors are more likely to report trials with statistically significant results in English than in German. METHODS We studied pairs of RCT reports,(More)
BACKGROUND We examined whether the initial virological and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is prognostic in patients with HIV-1 who start HAART. METHODS We analysed 13 cohort studies from Europe and North America including 9323 adult treatment-naive patients who were starting HAART with a combination of at least(More)
BACKGROUND In Latin America, motels rent rooms for commercial and non-commercial sex. We investigated the impact of providing health-education material and condoms on condom use in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS In a randomised controlled trial, in 19 motels, we gave condoms on request, made them available in rooms, or gave condoms directly to couples, with(More)