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Prions are self-propagating protein conformations. Recent research brought insight into prion propagation, but how they first appear is unknown. We previously established that the yeast non-Mendelian trait [PIN(+)] is required for the de novo appearance of the [PSI(+)] prion. Here, we show that the presence of prions formed by Rnq1 or Ure2 is sufficient to(More)
We have previously described different variants of the yeast prion [PSI+] that can be obtained and maintained in the same genetic background. These [PSI+] variants, which differ in the efficiency of nonsense suppression, mitotic stability and the efficiency of curing by GuHCl, may correspond to different [PSI+] prion conformations of Sup35p or to different(More)
It has previously been shown that yeast prion [PSI+] is cured by GuHCl, although reports on reversibility of curing were contradictory. Here we show that GuHCl treatment of both [PSI+] and [psi-] yeast strains results in two classes of [psi-] derivatives: Pin+, in which [PSI+] can be reinduced by Sup35p overproduction, and Pin-, in which overexpression of(More)
The [PSI(+)] prion can be induced by overproduction of the complete Sup35 protein, but only in strains carrying the non-Mendelian [PIN(+)] determinant. Here we demonstrate that just as [psi (-)] strains can exist as [PIN(+)] and [pin(-)] variants, [PSI(+)] can also exist in the presence or absence of [PIN(+)]. [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] tend to be cured(More)
Prions are "infectious" proteins. When Sup35, a yeast translation termination factor, is aggregated in its [PSI(+)] prion form its function is compromised. When Rnq1 is aggregated in its [PIN(+)] prion form, it promotes the de novo appearance of [PSI(+)]. Heritable variants (strains) of [PSI(+)] with distinct phenotypes have been isolated and are analogous(More)
Prions are infectious, aggregated proteins that cause diseases in mammals but are not normally toxic in fungi. Excess Sup35p, an essential yeast protein that can exist as the [PSI(+)] prion, inhibits growth of [PSI(+)] but not [psi(-)] cells. This toxicity is rescued by expressing the Sup35Cp domain of Sup35p, which is sufficient for cell viability but not(More)
Sup35 and Sup45 are essential protein components of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae translation termination factor. Yeast cells harbouring the [PSI(+)] prion form of Sup35 have impaired stop codon recognition (nonsense suppression). It has long been known that the [PSI(+)] prion is not stably transmitted to daughter cells when yeast are grown in the presence(More)
The yeast Sup35 and Rnq1 proteins can exist in either the noninfectious soluble forms, [psi-] or [pin-], respectively, or the multiple infectious amyloid-like forms called [PSI+] or [PIN+] prion variants (or prion strains). It was previously shown that [PSI+] and [PIN+] prions enhance one another's de novo appearance. Here we show that specific prion(More)
The Sup35 protein can exist in a non-infectious form or in various infectious forms called [PSI+] prion variants (or prion strains). Each of the different [PSI+] prion variants converts non-infectious Sup35 molecules into that prion variant's infectious form. One definition of a 'prion domain' is the minimal fragment of a prion protein that is necessary and(More)
The enzymes catalyzing the first two reactions in the sulfate activation pathway, ATP-sulfurylase (S) and APS-kinase (K), are fused as 'KS' in animals but are fused as 'SK' in select bacteria and fungi. We have discovered a novel triple fusion protein of K, S, and pyrophosphatase (P) in several protozoan genomes within the Stramenopile lineage. These triple(More)