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We describe Hi-C, a method that probes the three-dimensional architecture of whole genomes by coupling proximity-based ligation with massively parallel sequencing. We constructed spatial proximity maps of the human genome with Hi-C at a resolution of 1 megabase. These maps confirm the presence of chromosome territories and the spatial proximity of small,(More)
DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We(More)
We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about(More)
Genetic variation among individual humans occurs on many different scales, ranging from gross alterations in the human karyotype to single nucleotide changes. Here we explore variation on an intermediate scale--particularly insertions, deletions and inversions affecting from a few thousand to a few million base pairs. We employed a clone-based method to(More)
Faithful transmission of genetic material to daughter cells involves a characteristic temporal order of DNA replication, which may play a significant role in the inheritance of epigenetic states. We developed a genome-scale approach--Repli Seq--to map temporally ordered replicating DNA using massively parallel sequencing and applied it to study regional(More)
Comprehensive identification of sequences that regulate transcription is one of the major goals of genome biology. Focal alteration in chromatin structure in vivo, detectable through hypersensitivity to DNaseI and other nucleases, is the sine qua non of a diverse cast of transcriptional regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, and(More)
How cell type-specific differences in chromatin conformation are achieved and their contribution to gene expression are incompletely understood. Here we identify a cryptic upstream orchestrator of interferon-gamma (IFNG) transcription, which is embedded within the human IL26 gene, compromised of a single CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding site and retained(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of epilepsies with poor prognosis, of which the majority are of unknown etiology. We perform targeted massively parallel resequencing of 19 known and 46 candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy in 500 affected individuals (cases) to identify new genes involved and to investigate the phenotypic spectrum(More)
Localized accessibility of critical DNA sequences to the regulatory machinery is a key requirement for regulation of human genes. Here we describe a high-resolution, genome-scale approach for quantifying chromatin accessibility by measuring DNase I sensitivity as a continuous function of genome position using tiling DNA microarrays (DNase-array). We(More)
Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) are primarily autosomal-recessive conditions characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, abnormal eye movements, and intellectual disability with a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation. Variable features include retinal dystrophy, cystic kidney disease, and liver fibrosis. JSRD are included in the rapidly expanding(More)