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Visual pattern memory of Drosophila melanogaster at the torque meter is investigated by a new learning paradigm called novelty choice. In this procedure the fly is first exposed to four identical patterns presented at the wall of the cylinder surrounding it. In the test it has the choice between two pairs of patterns, a new one and one the same as the(More)
Honeybees remember the shapes of flowers and are guided by visual landmarks on their foraging trips. How insects recognize visual patterns is poorly understood. Experiments suggest that they try to match retinotopically the incoming visual pattern with a previously stored memory image. But bees can be conditioned to individual pattern parameters such as(More)
Drosophila flies can be trained in the flight simulator to operantly avoid heat by choosing certain orientations relative to landmarks. Flies primarily store pattern orientations associated with the absence of heat. They readily escape from heat-associated orientations under the direct influence of the reinforcer but not in the subsequent memory tests. The(More)
We would like to recognise the following for their significant participation to the development of this Technical Specification. 4 Introduction This UN/CEFACT – XML Naming and Design Rules Technical Specification describes and specifies the rules and guidelines that will be applied by UN/CEFACT when developing XML schema. This technical specification(More)
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