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A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of discrimination(More)
Many studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) perform significantly worse than normal controls on verbal fluency tasks. Moreover, some studies have found that AD patients' deficits compared to controls are more severe for semantic fluency (e.g., vegetables) than for letter fluency (e.g. words that begin with F). These studies, however,(More)
We collected category fluency data from several moderate-to-large samples of participants at three different sites: the New York University Aging and Dementia Center, the Oregon Health Services Aging and Dementia Research Center, and the Einstein Aging Study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. These data were analyzed by calculating the average(More)
In three experiments, we investigated metacognitive monitoring in a variant of an A-B A-C learning paradigm in which the repetition of cues, but not targets, led to increasing proactive interference (PI) across trials. Judgments of learning (JOLs) correctly predicted decreases across trials in this paradigm but incorrectly continued to predict decreases on(More)
Older adults exhibit a disproportionate deficit in their ability to recover contextual elements or source information about prior encounters with stimuli. A recent theoretical account, DRYAD, attributes this selective deficit to a global decrease in memory fidelity with age, moderated by weak representation of contextual information. The predictions of(More)
Two experiments examine how inferences might promote unsupervised and incremental category learning. Many categories have members related through overall similarity (e.g., a family resemblance structure) rather than by a defining feature. However, when people are asked to sort category members in a category construction task, they often do so by(More)
Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13-15 y.o.) and young adults (20-22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence was(More)
Populations affected by humanitarian emergencies may require unique strategies to ensure access to life-saving vaccines and attain sufficiently high population immunity to interrupt virus circulation. Vaccination strategies among displaced populations should not be an afterthought and must be part of the vaccine-preventable disease eradication and(More)