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Maintaining accurate world knowledge in a complex and changing environment is a perennial problem for robots and other artificial intelligence systems. Our architecture for addressing this problem, called Horde, consists of a large number of independent reinforcement learning sub-agents, or demons. Each demon is responsible for answering a single predictive(More)
Aging alters skeletal muscle vascular geometry and control such that the dynamics of muscular blood flow (Q) and O2 delivery (Q(O2)) may be impaired across the rest-exercise transition. If, at the onset of muscle contractions, Q dynamics are slowed disproportionately to those of muscle O2 uptake (V(O2), microvascular PO2 (PO2m) would be reduced and(More)
Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown(More)
We examined the association between open-field behavior and treadmill performance in 39 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three daily, five-minute trials were conducted in an open field of 49 19 cm squares. The objectivity of the open-field test was established by intraclass correlations (R) for observer agreement on total squares traversed (R = .99) and a(More)
1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state(More)
Synthesis of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is impaired in aged animals following acute stresses including exercise. In this study we determined whether aging affects expression of this cytoprotective protein following chronic exercise participation. Male Fischer 344 rats, final ages 6 and 24 months, exercised identically for 10 weeks on a(More)
Previous work has demonstrated that muscular injury in rat soleus muscles resulting from eccentric contractions (downhill walking) is accompanied by elevations in mitochondrial [Ca2+] (MCC). Muscles are stretched during eccentric contractions, and there is evidence in the literature that stretch of the cell membrane induces Ca2+ influx in various tissues,(More)
Aging leads to progressive pathophysiological changes in blood vessels of the brain and periphery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on cerebral vascular function and structure. Basilar arteries were isolated from male Fischer 344 cross Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats at 3, 8, and 24 months of age. The basilar arteries were cannulated(More)
Bone loss with aging and menopause may be linked to vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of the study was to determine whether putative modifications in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the principal nutrient artery (PNA) of the femur are associated with changes in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) with altered estrogen status in young (6 mon)(More)