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Maintaining accurate world knowledge in a complex and changing environment is a perennial problem for robots and other artificial intelligence systems. Our architecture for addressing this problem, called Horde, consists of a large number of independent reinforcement learning sub-agents, or demons. Each demon is responsible for answering a single predictive(More)
Blood flow capacity in skeletal muscle declines with age. Reduced blood flow capacity may be related to decline in the maximal vasodilatory capacity of the resistance vasculature. This study tested the hypothesis that aging results in impaired vasodilatory capacity of first-order (1A) arterioles isolated from rat-hindlimb locomotory muscle: 1A arterioles(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of maturation and aging on cardiac output, the distribution of cardiac output, tissue blood flow (determined by using the radioactive-microsphere technique), and body composition in conscious juvenile (2-mo-old), adult (6-mo-old), and aged (24-mo-old) male Fischer-344 rats. Cardiac output was lower in(More)
Aging alters skeletal muscle vascular geometry and control such that the dynamics of muscular blood flow (Q) and O2 delivery (Q(O2)) may be impaired across the rest-exercise transition. If, at the onset of muscle contractions, Q dynamics are slowed disproportionately to those of muscle O2 uptake (V(O2), microvascular PO2 (PO2m) would be reduced and(More)
Approximately 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes present with concurrent hypertension at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Increases in peripheral vascular resistance and correspondingly enhanced vasoconstrictor capacity could have profound implications for the development of hypertension and the progression of insulin resistance to overt diabetes. The(More)
Vascular remodeling and changes in vascular responsiveness occur in the rat cerebrum with old age. This includes reductions in cerebral arteriolar numerical density, cross-sectional area, distensibility, the relative proportion of distensible elements in the cerebral arteriolar wall, and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation. The purpose of this study(More)
Skeletal muscle vascular resistance during physical exertion is higher with old age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 1) aging enhances angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced vasoconstriction; 2) the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α contributes to alterations in ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction with aging; 3) exercise(More)
Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown(More)
We examined the association between open-field behavior and treadmill performance in 39 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three daily, five-minute trials were conducted in an open field of 49 19 cm squares. The objectivity of the open-field test was established by intraclass correlations (R) for observer agreement on total squares traversed (R = .99) and a(More)
1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state(More)