Learn More
Maintaining accurate world knowledge in a complex and changing environment is a perennial problem for robots and other artificial intelligence systems. Our architecture for addressing this problem, called Horde, consists of a large number of independent reinforcement learning sub-agents, or demons. Each demon is responsible for answering a single predictive(More)
We tested the hypothesis that adaptations in peripheral arterial vasoreactivity are induced by exercise training. Male rats were trained to run on a treadmill at 30 m/min (15 degrees incline) for 1 h/day 5 days/wk for 10-12 wk. Efficacy was indicated by a 51% increase (P < 0.05) in citrate synthase activity in soleus muscle of exercise-trained (ET) rats(More)
A population of muscle fibers containing a myosin heavy-chain isoform IId (or 2x) has recently been identified in rat muscle. The purpose of this study was to histochemically determine the relative population and size of muscle fibers composed of type IID/X fibers as well as type I, IIA, and IIB fibers to estimate the absolute mass of the different types of(More)
Rat locomotor and feeding behavior varies on a diurnal basis; at night the animals actively forage and eat, whereas during the day they are more inactive and somnolent. At night, cardiac output is higher, presumably for enhanced perfusion of the active muscles to support increased metabolism and for enhanced perfusion of the digestive organs to support(More)
Ageing reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in humans and animals, and in humans, exercise training reverses the ageing-associated reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which 10-12 weeks of treadmill exercise enhances endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in muscles of(More)
Blood flow capacity in skeletal muscle declines with age. Reduced blood flow capacity may be related to decline in the maximal vasodilatory capacity of the resistance vasculature. This study tested the hypothesis that aging results in impaired vasodilatory capacity of first-order (1A) arterioles isolated from rat-hindlimb locomotory muscle: 1A arterioles(More)
Reduced availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) contributes to the age-related decline of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatation of soleus muscle arterioles. Depending on availability of substrate and/or necessary co-factors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can generate NO and/or superoxide (O(2)(-)). We evaluated the effects of age and(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of maturation and aging on cardiac output, the distribution of cardiac output, tissue blood flow (determined by using the radioactive-microsphere technique), and body composition in conscious juvenile (2-mo-old), adult (6-mo-old), and aged (24-mo-old) male Fischer-344 rats. Cardiac output was lower in(More)
Aging alters skeletal muscle vascular geometry and control such that the dynamics of muscular blood flow (Q) and O2 delivery (Q(O2)) may be impaired across the rest-exercise transition. If, at the onset of muscle contractions, Q dynamics are slowed disproportionately to those of muscle O2 uptake (V(O2), microvascular PO2 (PO2m) would be reduced and(More)