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Theory predicts, and recent empirical studies have shown, that the diversity of plant species determines the diversity of associated herbivores and mediates ecosystem processes, such as aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). However, an often-overlooked component of plant diversity, namely population genotypic diversity, may also have wide-ranging(More)
The competition-colonization trade-off has long been considered an important mechanism explaining species coexistence in spatially structured environments, yet data supporting it remain ambiguous. Most competition-colonization research examines plants and the dispersal-linked traits of their seeds. However, colonization is more than just dispersal because(More)
Carbaryl, one of the most important insecticides, is widely produced and used. To explore carbaryl-induced genotoxic effects of spermatozoa, particularly DNA damage and chromosome aberrations (CA), we first examined conventional semen parameters, the progression and motion parameters of the spermatozoa among 16 carbaryl-exposed workers and 30 internal and(More)
To address the idea that the process of interspecific competition can be inferred from data on geographical distribution alone and that evidence from geographical distribution implies an important role for interspecific competition in shaping ecological communities, we reexamine the occurrence of "true checkerboard" distributions among the land and(More)
BACKGROUND Most toxicological studies have tested single chemical agents at relatively high doses, and fewer studies have addressed the toxic effects of chemical interactions. It is important to understand the toxicity of chemical mixtures in order to assess the more realistic risks of environmental and occupational exposures. A number of chemicals are(More)
The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and(More)
The developing limb has been studied extensively and is a useful model to study morphogenesis. During embryogenesis, limb formation is initiated as a budding off from the embryonic lateral body wall. Limb pattern is specified by a series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, directing proximodistal, dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes. Vitamin A(More)
Haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) are common blood parasites of birds transmitted by dipteran insect vectors. We analyzed blood samples from 329 individuals of 43 bird species in eastern Tennessee to better understand the relationship between the local community of birds and their blood parasites, including the distribution of(More)
BACKGROUND This study examines interactions of a mutation in Pax3, embryonic sex, advanced maternal age, and arsenite exposure in the splotch (Sp) mouse model, with the aim of describing gene-environment interactions for neural tube defects and embryonic lethality. METHODS Splotch heterozygous C57BL/6J mice were crossed to produce offspring of three(More)
Because all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is teratogenic in all species tested and many of the specific defects induced are common across the phylogenetic spectrum, it would be logical to predict that murine strain differences in teratology to this agent are minimal. However, for specific defects, strain susceptibilities are vastly different. Studies with atRA(More)