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We show that brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication protein 1a, 2a polymerase, and a cis-acting replication signal recapitulate the functions of Gag, Pol, and RNA packaging signals in conventional retrovirus and foamy virus cores. Prior to RNA replication, 1a forms spherules budding into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, sequestering viral(More)
OBJECTIVE The expression of proinflammatory cytokines is rapidly increased in experimental models of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), in patients at risk for ARDS, and in patients with established ARDS. Because multiple cytokines are present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a common, proximal activation mechanism may operate in these(More)
The identification and characterization of host cell membranes essential for positive-strand RNA virus replication should provide insight into the mechanisms of viral replication and potentially identify novel targets for broadly effective antiviral agents. The alphanodavirus flock house virus (FHV) is a positive-strand RNA virus with one of the smallest(More)
Diurnal and nocturnal species are profoundly different in terms of the temporal organization of daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. The neural bases for these divergent patterns are at present unknown. Here we examine functional differences in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and one of its primary targets in a diurnal rodent, the unstriped Nile(More)
Palytoxin (PTX) was first isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa toxica. Evaluation of PTX toxicity using various animal models determined that PTX was extremely potent through intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratracheal exposure. PTX was less potent by direct intragastric exposure. PTX also caused significant, non-lethal effects through dermal and ocular(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus contains the primary circadian pacemaker in both diurnal and nocturnal mammals. The lower subparaventricular zone (LSPV) immediately dorsal to the SCN may also play an important role in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The SCN contains a multitude of oscillator cells that generate circadian rhythms(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2009, synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has emerged as a growing public health threat in the United States (US). Several outbreaks of unexpected, severe toxicity linked to SC use have been reported since 2012. Reports of varied and significant morbidity after SC use are expected to increase because newer compounds enter the marketplace more(More)
Positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes are universally associated with intracellular membranes, although different viruses use membranes derived from diverse and sometimes multiple organelles. We investigated whether unique intracellular membranes are required for viral RNA replication complex formation and function in yeast by retargeting protein(More)
Positive-strand RNA virus RNA replication is invariably membrane associated and frequently involves viral proteins with nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase motifs or activities. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) encodes two RNA replication factors: 1a has a C-terminal NTPase/helicase-like domain, and 2a(pol) has a central polymerase domain. 1a accumulates on(More)