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Metastasis is a defining feature of malignant tumors and is the most common cause of cancer-related death, yet the genetics of metastasis are poorly understood. We used exome capture coupled with massively parallel sequencing to search for metastasis-related mutations in highly metastatic uveal melanomas of the eye. Inactivating somatic mutations were(More)
PURPOSE Early/initiating oncogenic mutations have been identified for many cancers, but such mutations remain unidentified in uveal melanoma (UM). An extensive search for such mutations was undertaken, focusing on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which is often the target of initiating mutations in other types of cancer. METHODS DNA samples from primary UMs were(More)
Melanomas are notoriously difficult to classify because of a lack of discrete clinical and pathological stages. Here, we show that primary uveal melanomas surprisingly cluster into two distinct molecular classes based on gene expression profile. Genes that discriminate class 1 (low-grade) from class 2 (high-grade) include highly significant clusters of(More)
Pathologic angiogenesis mediated by abnormally polarized macrophages plays a central role in common age-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and macular degeneration. Here we demonstrate that abnormal polarization in older macrophages is caused by programmatic changes that lead to reduced expression of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA1.(More)
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at codon 625 of the SF3B1 gene, encoding splicing factor 3B subunit 1, in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutations,(More)
Uveal (ocular) melanoma is an aggressive cancer that often forms undetectable micrometastases before diagnosis of the primary tumor. These micrometastases later multiply to generate metastatic tumors that are resistant to therapy and are uniformly fatal. We have previously identified a gene expression profile derived from the primary tumor that is extremely(More)
PURPOSE This study evaluates the prognostic performance of a 15 gene expression profiling (GEP) assay that assigns primary posterior uveal melanomas to prognostic subgroups: class 1 (low metastatic risk) and class 2 (high metastatic risk). DESIGN Prospective, multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS A total of 459 patients with posterior uveal melanoma were(More)
PURPOSE The molecular pathogenesis of uveal melanoma is poorly understood but is usually accompanied by amplification of chromosome 8q, suggesting the activation of one or more oncogenes. We recently identified a gene expression profile that distinguishes low-grade from high-grade melanomas. In this profile, a cluster of genes at chromosome 8q was(More)
PURPOSE Metastasis is responsible for the death of most cancer patients, yet few therapeutic agents are available which specifically target the molecular events that lead to metastasis. We recently showed that inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 are closely associated with loss of melanocytic differentiation in uveal melanoma (UM) and(More)
Interaction of alpha 4 integrins with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is classically important for immune function. However, we found recently that these receptors have a second role, in embryogenesis, where they mediate cell-cell interactions that are important for skeletal muscle differentiation. Here, we present evidence of an expanding role(More)