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BACKGROUND Naturally occurring Vif variants that are unable to inhibit the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) have been isolated from infected individuals. A3G can potentially induce G-to-A hypermutation in these viruses, and hypermutation could contribute to genetic variation in HIV-1 populations through recombination between hypermutant and wild-type(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 envelope protein mediates virus attachment to the EBV/C3dg receptor (CR2) of human B lymphocytes. Synthetic peptides corresponding to two regions in gp350/220, which have a similar amino acid sequence with the complement C3dg protein, were used to identify a receptor binding epitope. A peptide corresponding to the N terminus(More)
Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on(More)
Hemocyanins are large multi-subunit copper proteins that transport oxygen in many arthropods and molluscs. Comparison of the amino acid sequence data for seven different subunits of arthropod hemocyanins from crustaceans and chelicerates shows many highly conserved residues and extensive regions of near identity. This correspondence can be matched closely(More)
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by severe and persistent childhood infections. It is caused by the lack of an antipathogen oxidative burst, normally performed by phagocytic cells to contain and clear bacterial and fungal growth. Restoration of immune function can be achieved with heterologous bone marrow(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant in humans and recognize bacterial ligands. Here, we demonstrate that MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections in vivo. MAIT cells activation was observed during infection with dengue virus, hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This activation-driving cytokine release and Granzyme(More)
Macrophages constitute an important reservoir of HIV-1 infection, yet HIV-1 entry into these cells is poorly understood due to the difficulty in genetically manipulating primary macrophages. We developed an effective genetic approach to manipulate the sub-cellular distribution of CD4 in macrophages, and investigated how this affects the HIV-1 entry pathway.(More)
Statistical methods for reconstructing speech at the phoneme level are used to find missing phonemes that are removed from sentences in the TIMIT corpus. Probabilities for the occurrence of the missing phoneme(s) are generated and the most likely candidate(s) selected to reconstruct the sentence. Method includes symmetric and asymmetric 'confidence(More)
The U.S. health care system relies on tort litigation as a means of protecting patients and consumers from medical malpractice. The system of tort litigation has contributed to the U.S. having the highest health care spending per capita of any nation, but it has not resulted in superior quality of care. This work argues that tort litigation in health care(More)