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Humans show considerable interindividual variation in susceptibility to weight gain in response to overeating. The physiological basis of this variation was investigated by measuring changes in energy storage and expenditure in 16 nonobese volunteers who were fed 1000 kilocalories per day in excess of weight-maintenance requirements for 8 weeks. Two-thirds(More)
BACKGROUND Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor blocker, reduces bodyweight and improves cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in non-diabetic overweight or obese patients. The aim of the RIO-Diabetes trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes that was inadequately(More)
Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Humans expend energy through purposeful exercise and through changes in posture and movement that are associated with the routines of daily life [called nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)]. To examine NEAT's role in obesity, we recruited 10 lean and 10 mildly obese sedentary volunteers and(More)
Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat ablation and certain mutations affecting fat increase life(More)
Anatomically separate fat depots differ in size, function, and contribution to pathological states, such as the metabolic syndrome. We isolated preadipocytes from different human fat depots to determine whether the basis for this variation is partly attributable to differences in inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. We found that genome-wide(More)
Secretory phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is an inflammatory protein known to play a role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Although this enzyme has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, there has not been a direct demonstration of its expression in diseased human brain. In this study, we show that(More)
Astrocytes comprise the major cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) and they are essential for support of neuronal functions by providing nutrients and regulating cell-to-cell communication. Astrocytes also are immune-like cells that become reactive in response to neuronal injury. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a family of ubiquitous enzymes that(More)
Leptin exerts important effects on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure by acting in the brain. Leptin action is mediated by the interaction with a receptor that is alternatively spliced, resulting in at least five different isoforms. The long form (OB-Rb) has a long intracellular domain that is essential for intracellular signal(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes disproportionately affect African-American (AA) women. Abnormal adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release is associated with these conditions. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and sex predict FFA release in Caucasians, but whether this is true in AA is unknown. The sex-specific relationships between FFA(More)
OBJECTIVE Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent insulin resistance and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in rodents, but the findings of translational studies in humans are thus far ambiguous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on insulin(More)