Michael D. Howell

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Cathelicidins and other antimicrobial peptides are deployed at epithelial surfaces to defend against infection. These molecules have broad-spectrum killing activity against microbes and can have effects on specific mammalian cell types, potentially stimulating additional immune defense through direct chemotactic activity or induction of cytokine release. In(More)
Although case reports link proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and hypomagnesemia, no large-scale studies have been conducted. Here we examined the serum magnesium concentration and the likelihood of hypomagnesemia (<1.6 mg/dl) with a history of PPI or histamine-2 receptor antagonist used to reduce gastric acid, or use of neither among 11,490 consecutive adult(More)
Possible bioterrorism with smallpox has led to the resumption of smallpox (vaccinia virus) immunization. One complication, eczema vaccinatum, occurs primarily in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Skin lesions of patients with AD, but not psoriasis, is deficient in the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2). We(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by a defective skin barrier which allows increased allergen and pathogen penetration. Loricrin (LOR) and involucrin (IVL) are proteins important for skin barrier formation and integrity. In this study, we demonstrate that the gene and protein expression of LOR and IVL is significantly decreased in involved (LOR:(More)
INTRODUCTION Recently, red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of erythrocyte size variability, has been shown to be a prognostic marker in critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding RDW has the potential to improve the prognostic performance of the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) to predict short- and long-term(More)
IL-4 promotes the development of Th2 cells and allergic inflammation. In atopic dermatitis lesions, IL-4 decreases the expression of multiple genes associated with innate defense, including genes in the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) that regulate epidermal barrier function. However, it is not clear whether IL-4 also contributes to homeostatic(More)
One consequence of the increasing amount of data stored during acquisition processes is that sampled time series are more prone to be collected in a misaligned uneven fashion and/or be partly lost or unavailable (missing data). Due to their severe impact on data mining techniques, this work proposes methods to (a) align misaligned unevenly sampled data, (b)(More)
PURPOSE The observation periods and thresholds of serum creatinine and urine output defined in the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria were not empirically derived. By continuously varying creatinine/urine output thresholds as well as the observation period, we sought to investigate the empirical relationships among creatinine, oliguria, in-hospital(More)