Michael D. Howard

Learn More
This paper reviews the fate of the central ideas behind the complementary learning systems (CLS) framework as originally articulated in McClelland, McNaughton, and O'Reilly (1995). This framework explains why the brain requires two differentially specialized learning and memory systems, and it nicely specifies their central properties (i.e., the hippocampus(More)
We present a novel paradigm for pattern matching. Our method provides a means to search a continuous data stream for exact matches with a priori stored data sequences. At heart, we use a neural network with input and output layers and variable connections in between. The input layer has one neuron for each possible character or number in the data stream,(More)
Haemophilus somnus isolates from cases of thrombotic meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and other disease sites are capable of undergoing a high rate of phase variation in the oligosaccharide component of their lipooligosaccharides (LOS). In contrast, the LOS of commensal strains isolated from the normal reproductive tract phase vary little or not at all. In(More)
Virulent strains of the bovine opportunistic pathogen Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) cause multi-systemic diseases in cattle. One of the reported virulence factors that H. somnus may use to persist in the host is resistance to intracellular killing. We report here that H. somnus significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited production of superoxide anion(More)
We describe techniques for coordinating the actions of large numbers of small-scale robots to achieve useful large-scale results in surveillance, reconnaissance, hazard detection, and path finding. We exploit the biologically inspired notion of a “virtual pheromone,” implemented using simple transceivers mounted atop each robot. Unlike the chemical markers(More)
Histophilus somni is an etiologic agent of bovine respiratory and systemic diseases. Most pathogenic strains of H. somni that have been tested (36 of 42) are able to utilize N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to sialylate their lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Homologs of all the genes required for transport, metabolism, and regulation of Neu5Ac in Haemophilus(More)
The structure of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from the commensal Haemophilus somnus strain 1P was elucidated. The structure of the O-deacylated LOS was established by monosaccharide analysis, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The following structure for the O-deacylated LOS was determined on the basis of the combined data from these experiments.(More)
The incorporation of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), or sialic acid, onto surface components of some bacterial species may enhance their virulence. We have previously shown that Neu5Ac can be incorporated onto the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the bovine pathogen Histophilus somni, resulting in diminished antibody binding and enhanced serum resistance(More)
Involvement in combat imposes a psychological burden that affects all combatants, not only those who are vulnerable to emotional disorders or those who sustain physical wound distress. This burden of combat is also carried by the families of those who go to war. Although most ground combat units have a medical officer as well as a chaplain assigned to them,(More)