Michael D. Hammonds

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A large body of evidence indicates that lithium, the prototype mood stabilizer in the treatment of bipolar disorder, has diverse neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions, and the actions are associated with its efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. It has been suggested that up-regulation of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors including brain-derived(More)
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypo-function theory of schizophrenia proposes that impairment in NMDAR function be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and suggests that enhancement of the receptor function may produce efficacy for schizophrenia. Consistent with this theory, for the last decade, clinical trials have demonstrated that(More)
Tinnitus is the phantom perception of sounds occurring in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. Tinnitus: [1] effects 50 million individuals, [2] often results from acoustic trauma and, [3] is very often exacerbated under stressful conditions. Tinnitus may result from lesions occurring at any location in the auditory system, but its mechanisms are(More)
Although it has been proposed that exposure to lithium up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) and cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and these molecules are involved in the neuroplastic actions and clinical efficacy of the drug, the several lines of evidence suggest that the(More)
Neuroplastic theories propose that lithium has robust neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions leading to the up-regulation of synaptic plasticity, and this action may be associated with the efficacy of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is efficacious in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been(More)
A large body of evidence from molecular, cellular and human studies suggests that lithium may enhance synaptic plasticity, which may be associated with its therapeutic efficacy. However, only a small number of studies have directly assessed this. To determine whether lithium treatment alters structural synaptic plasticity, this study examined the effect of(More)
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