Michael D. Escobar

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OBJECTIVE To examine the association between early childhood speech and language disorders and young adult psychiatric disorders. METHOD In a longitudinal community study conducted in the Ottawa-Carleton region of Ontario, Canada, interviewers administered structured psychiatric interviews to age 19 participants who were originally identified as(More)
Bayesian models involving Dirichlet process mixtures are at the heart of the modern nonparametric Bayesian movement. Much of the rapid development of these models in the last decade has been a direct result of advances in simulation-based computational methods. Some of the very early work in this area, circa 1988-1991, focused on the use of such(More)
We describe and illustrate Bayesian inference in models for density estimation using mixtures of Dirichlet processes. These models provide natural settings for density estimation, and are exempliied by special cases where data are modelled as a sample from mixtures of normal distributions. EEcient simulation methods are used to approximate various prior,(More)
We hypothesized that results of previous investigations indicating an increased prevalence of reading disability in boys compared with girls reflected a bias in subject selection. In an epidemiologic sample of 215 girls and 199 boys, we identified two groups of reading-disabled children: research identified and school identified. Results indicated no(More)
This report concerns the speech and language outcomes of young adults (N = 242) who participated in a 14-year, prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of children with (n = 114) and without (n = 128) speech and/or language impairments. Participants were initially identified at age 5 and subsequently followed at ages 12 and 19. Direct(More)
BACKGROUND Dyslexia is now widely believed to be a biologically based disorder that is distinct from other, less specific reading problems. According to this view, reading ability is considered to follow a bimodal distribution, with dyslexia as the lower mode. We hypothesized that, instead, reading ability follows a normal distribution, with dyslexia at the(More)
Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study examines the(More)
Self-reported health status is often measured using psychometric or utility indices that provide a score intended to summarize an individual's health. Measurements of health status can be subject to a ceiling effect. Frequently, researchers want to examine relationships between determinants of health and measures of health status. Regression methods that(More)