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Both acute and chronic changes in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) localization are critical for synaptic formation, maturation, and plasticity. Here I report that AMPARs are differentially sorted between recycling and degradative pathways following endocytosis. AMPAR sorting occurs in early endosomes and is regulated by synaptic activity and activation of AMPA and(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma(More)
Experience-dependent remodeling of the postsynaptic density (PSD) is critical for synapse formation and plasticity in the mammalian brain. Here, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, I found long-lasting, global changes in the molecular composition of the PSD dictated by synaptic activity. These changes were bidirectional, reversible, modular, and involved(More)
Although synaptic AMPA receptors have been shown to rapidly internalize, synaptic NMDA receptors are reported to be static. It is not certain whether NMDA receptor stability at synaptic sites is an inherent property of the receptor, or is due to stabilization by scaffolding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that NMDA receptors are internalized in both(More)
Endocytosis is a fundamental mechanism by which neurons control intercellular signaling, nutrient uptake, and synaptic transmission. This process is carried out by the assembly of clathrin coats and the budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the neuronal plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that in young neurons, clathrin assembly and disassembly occur(More)
Both theoretical and experimental work have suggested that central neurons compensate for changes in excitatory synaptic input in order to maintain a relatively constant output. We report here that inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in cultured spinal neurons leads to an increase in mEPSC amplitudes, accompanied by an equivalent increase in the(More)
Dendritic spines are micron-sized membrane protrusions receiving most excitatory synaptic inputs in the mammalian brain. Spines form and grow during long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. However, the source of membrane for spine formation and enlargement is unknown. Here we report that membrane trafficking from recycling endosomes is required(More)
Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the brain by protein phosphorylation may play a central role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. To examine the phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in situ, we have generated several polyclonal antibodies that recognize the NR1 subunit only when specific serine residues(More)
Proper growth of dendrites is critical to the formation of neuronal circuits, but the cellular machinery that directs the addition of membrane components to generate dendritic architecture remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that post-Golgi membrane trafficking is polarized toward longer dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vitro and toward(More)
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain critical for synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. These receptors are Ca2+-permeable glutamate-gated ion channels whose physiological properties are regulated by intracellular Ca2+. We report here the purification of a 20 kDa protein identified as(More)