Michael D . Culler

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A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-Arg-Tyr-Lys-Gln-Arg-Val-Lys-Asn-Lys - NH2. The N-terminal(More)
Current evidence suggests that hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake; however, confirmation that it is a physiologically relevant regulatory system of feeding is still incomplete. Here, we use pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the physiological orexigenic response to ghrelin involves specific(More)
Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and(More)
Obesity and nutrient homeostasis are linked by mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Here we describe a secreted protein, adropin, encoded by a gene, Energy Homeostasis Associated (Enho), expressed in liver and brain. Liver Enho expression is regulated by nutrition: lean C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited a rapid increase, while fasting(More)
Although both somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) and SSTR5 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) are consistently expressed in GH-secreting adenomas, SSTR2 has been believed to be the key modulator of somatostatin-mediated inhibition of GH release. The somatostatin agonists currently in clinical use, octreotide and lanreotide, are directed mainly to SSTR2(More)
Somatostatin was reported to inhibit Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cell (KS-Imm) xenografts through an antiangiogenic activity. Here, we show that somatostatin blocks growth of established KS-Imm tumors with the same efficacy as adriamycin, a clinically effective cytotoxic drug. Whereas KS-Imm cells do not express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), endothelial cells(More)
Somatostatin (SRIF), a hypothalamic inhibitor of pituitary growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion, binds to five distinct receptor (SSTR) subtypes. We therefore tested SSTR subtype-specific SRIF analogs in primary human fetal pituitary cultures (23-25-wk gestation) to elucidate their role in regulating human pituitary function.(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia with loss of muscle and fat stores. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of treating a model of cancer cachexia with ghrelin and a ghrelin receptor agonist. Currently, we examine a surgical model of CKD in rats, resulting in uremia and(More)
Recently, studies using somatostatin (SRIF) analogs preferential for either the SRIF receptor 2 (SSTR2) or the SSTR5 subtype demonstrated a variable suppression of GH and PRL release from GH-secreting human adenomas. These data suggested the concept of SSTR subtype specificity in such tumors. In the present study the quantitative expression of messenger(More)
Batterham et al. report that the gut peptide hormone PYY3-36 decreases food intake and body-weight gain in rodents, a discovery that has been heralded as potentially offering a new therapy for obesity. However, we have been unable to replicate their results. Although the reasons for this discrepancy remain undetermined, an effective anti-obesity drug(More)