Michael D. Brown

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Human mtDNA shows striking regional variation, traditionally attributed to genetic drift. However, it is not easy to account for the fact that only two mtDNA lineages (M and N) left Africa to colonize Eurasia and that lineages A, C, D, and G show a 5-fold enrichment from central Asia to Siberia. As an alternative to drift, natural selection might have(More)
The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from(More)
In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding(More)
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as "primary" LHON mutations. Fifteen other "secondary" LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their(More)
A five-generation Hispanic family expressing maternally transmitted Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and/or early-onset dystonia associated with bilateral basal ganglia lesions was studied. Buffy coat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a severely affected child was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and greater than 90% sequenced. The mtDNA proved to(More)
On the basis of comprehensive RFLP analysis, it has been inferred that approximately 97% of Native American mtDNAs belong to one of four major founding mtDNA lineages, designated haplogroups "A"-"D." It has been proposed that a fifth mtDNA haplogroup (haplogroup X) represents a minor founding lineage in Native Americans. Unlike haplogroups A-D, haplogroup X(More)
We have initiated a study of ancient male migrations from Siberia to the Americas using Y chromosome polymorphisms. The first polymorphism examined, a C→T transition at nucleotide position 181 of the DYS199 locus, was previously reported only in Native American populations. To investigate the origin of this DYS199 polymorphism, we screened Y chromosomes(More)
The mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNA) from 17 Caucasian 11778-positive and 30 Caucasian 11778-negative Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients were PCR-amplified and subjected to high resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Concurrently, all patient mtDNAs were screened for the common primary LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide pairs (nps) 3460,(More)
Four new missense mutations have been identified through restriction analysis and sequencing of the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNA) from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients who lacked the previously identified 11778 mutation. Each altered a conserved amino acid and correlated with the LHON phenotype in population and phylogenetic analyses. The(More)