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Neuroinflammatory processes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Epidemiologic, animal, human, and therapeutic studies all support the presence of an neuroinflammatory cascade in disease. This is highlighted by the neurotoxic potential of microglia . In steady state, microglia serve to protect the nervous system by acting(More)
Single-voxel proton spectra of the human brain were recorded in five subjects at both 1.5T and 3.0T using the STEAM pulse sequence. Data acquisition parameters were closely matched between the two field strengths. Spectra were recorded in the white matter of the centrum semiovale and in phantoms. Spectra were compared in terms of resolution and(More)
The goal of these experiments was to investigate the relationship of ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), monobasic phosphate (H2PO4-), and pH to human muscle fatigue. Phosphates and pH were measured in adductor pollicis using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance at 2.0 Tesla. The force of muscle contraction was simultaneously measured with a(More)
OBJECTIVE Decreased oxygen supply is generally accepted as the primary cause of muscle dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and intermittent claudication, although reported morphologic changes in the mitochondria of claudicating muscle suggest that impaired energy utilization may also play a role. With the measurement of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that optimal positioning of the head and neck to protect the spinal cord during cervical spine immobilization can be determined with reference to external landmarks. In this study we sought to determine the optimal position for cervical spine immobilization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to define this optimal(More)
Multislice, two-dimensional phosphorus 31 spectroscopic imaging (SI) of human brain was performed in 15 normal volunteers on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance system. Images of free magnesium concentrations and pH as well as phosphoesters, inorganic phosphate, phosphocreatine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), were calculated from the SI data. By using the(More)
T1 and magnetization transfer at a field strength of 7 Tesla were used to discriminate between water accumulation and protein mobilization in tissue undergoing infarction. Twelve rats subjected to acute stroke via intralumenal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, and 19 controls, were studied. In MRI studies to 6 hr post-ictus, serial data(More)
Neuronal damage induced by ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was investigated in humanized NOD/scid-IL-2Rγ(c)(null) mice transplanted at birth with human CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells. Mice infected at 5 months of age and followed for up to 15 weeks maintained significant plasma viral loads and showed reduced numbers of(More)
Inadequate O2 supply may impair intramuscular oxidative metabolism and O2 availability may modulate ATP production within exercising muscle. Therefore, we studied ATP flux from anaerobic glycolysis, the creatine kinase reaction, and oxidative phosphorylation using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy kinetic data collected during exercise. We examined six(More)