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Neuroinflammatory processes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Epidemiologic, animal, human, and therapeutic studies all support the presence of an neuroinflammatory cascade in disease. This is highlighted by the neurotoxic potential of microglia . In steady state, microglia serve to protect the nervous system by acting(More)
Single-voxel proton spectra of the human brain were recorded in five subjects at both 1.5T and 3.0T using the STEAM pulse sequence. Data acquisition parameters were closely matched between the two field strengths. Spectra were recorded in the white matter of the centrum semiovale and in phantoms. Spectra were compared in terms of resolution and(More)
Multislice, two-dimensional phosphorus 31 spectroscopic imaging (SI) of human brain was performed in 15 normal volunteers on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance system. Images of free magnesium concentrations and pH as well as phosphoesters, inorganic phosphate, phosphocreatine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), were calculated from the SI data. By using the(More)
Neuronal damage induced by ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was investigated in humanized NOD/scid-IL-2Rγ(c)(null) mice transplanted at birth with human CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells. Mice infected at 5 months of age and followed for up to 15 weeks maintained significant plasma viral loads and showed reduced numbers of(More)
Research directed at anatomical, integrative and functional activities of the central nervous system (CNS) can be realized through bioimaging. A wealth of data now demonstrates the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) towards unraveling complex neural connectivity operative in health and disease. A means to improve MRI sensitivity is through contrast(More)
Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is required to improve therapeutic responses. Indeed, a clinical diagnosis of resting tremor, rigidity, movement and postural deficiencies usually reflect >50% loss of the nigrostriatal system in disease. In a step to address this, quantitative diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) was used to assess(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Using newly developed computerized image analysis, we studied the heterogeneity of apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) values in human ischemic stroke within 10 hours of onset. METHODS Echo-planar trace diffusion-weighted images from 9 patients with focal cortical ischemic stroke were obtained within 10 hours of symptom(More)
Nigrostriatal degeneration, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), is mirrored by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication. MPTP-treated animals show the common behavioral, motor, and pathological features of human disease. We demonstrated previously that adoptive transfer of Copaxone (Cop-1) immune cells protected(More)
BACKGROUND Previous single voxel (31)P MRS pilot studies of migraine patients have suggested that disordered energy metabolism or Mg(2+) deficiencies may be responsible for hyperexcitability of neuronal tissue in migraine patients. These studies were extended to include multiple brain regions and larger numbers of patients by multislice (31)P MR(More)
Inflammatory cells, most notably mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages and microglia), play a critical role in brain homeostasis, repair and disease. One important event in cellular biodynamics is how MP move in and throughout the nervous system. Prior studies have focused principally on cell migration across the blood-brain barrier during(More)