Michael D. Attfield

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BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung(More)
Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the(More)
We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a(More)
BACKGROUND Despite significant progress made in reducing dust exposures in underground coal miners in the United States, severe cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), continue to occur among coal miners. AIMS To identify US miners with rapidly progressive CWP and to describe their geographic distribution(More)
BACKGROUND The mortality experience over 22-24 years of 8,899 working coal miners initially medically examined in 1969-1971 at 31 U.S. coal mines was evaluated. METHODS A cohort life-table analysis was undertaken on underlying causes of death, and proportional hazards models were fitted to both underlying, and underlying and contributing causes of death.(More)
OBJECTIVES Epidemiological reports since 2000 have documented increased prevalence and rapid progression of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in the United States. To investigate a possible role of silica exposure in the increase, we examined chest x-rays (CXRs) for specific abnormalities (r-type small opacities) known to be associated with(More)
Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also(More)
This surveillance report examines trends in selected pneumoconioses in the U.S. for 1968–2005 and their relationship with past indicators of extent of exposure. Numbers of deaths with asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were tabulated by time and age at death. Worker monitoring CWP prevalence data were tabulated by tenure group.(More)
In solutions containing Mg2+ and Ca2+, ATP is in equilibrium between the tetrabasic form (ATP4-) and its bidentate coordination complexes, i.e., MgATP2- and CaATP2-. We sought evidence to determine whether contractions of the smooth muscle of the guinea pig vas deferens to ATP are in response to ATP4- or its bidentate complexes. Contractions to ATP were(More)
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