Michael D. Attfield

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BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung(More)
BACKGROUND Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. METHODS We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12 315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with(More)
Objectives: Silica is one of the most common occupational exposures worldwide. In 1997 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified inhaled crystalline silica as a human carcinogen (group 1), but acknowledged limitations in the epidemiologic data, including inconsistencies across studies and the lack of extensive exposure–response data.(More)
Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental(More)
We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a(More)
BACKGROUND Excess lung cancer mortality among the exposed Vermont granite workers has been reported. These studies were based on job and tenure surrogates, with the potential for misclassification and inability to evaluate quantitative exposure-response. METHODS Industrial hygiene data collected from 1924 to 1977 was analyzed in conjunction with mortality(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the risk of silicosis among tin miners and to investigate the relation between silicosis and cumulative exposure to dust (Chinese total dust and respirable crystalline silica dust). METHODS A cohort study of 3010 miners exposed to silica dust and employed for at least 1 year during 1960-5 in any of four Chinese tin mines was(More)
Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the(More)
The quantitative relationship between exposure to respirable coal mine dust and mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was investigated in a study of 8,878 working male coal miners who were medically examined from 1969 to 1971 and followed to 1979. Exposure-related mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modeling for underlying or(More)
The relationships between chest radiographs (CXR) and corresponding pathology were investigated in 430 autopsied coal miners from West Virginia. Whole-lung sections were reviewed and graded on four-point severity scales for the following lesions of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP): macules, micro- and macronodules (small and large fibrotic nodules), and(More)