Michael Craig Clatts

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Public health researchers are addressing new research questions (e.g., effects of environmental tobacco smoke, Hurricane Katrina) for which the randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be a feasible option. Drawing on the potential outcomes framework (Rubin Causal Model) and Campbellian perspectives, we consider alternative research designs that permit(More)
HCV infection continues to spread at an alarming rate among IDU populations. The available evidence suggests that HCV is acquired relatively quickly following onset of injection. However, there are few prospective studies of HCV acquisition, particularly among IDU populations in resource-poor settings. A sample of young male heroin injectors with recent(More)
Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave(More)
In this paper we examine risk behavior, exposure to street outreach, and condom use in samples of injecting drug users (IDUs) and high-risk youth. We used systematic sampling methods to produce representative samples of injecting drug users IDUs (five sites) and high-risk youth (three sites). The populations surveyed engaged in high levels of sexual risk(More)
BACKGROUND Preventing the onset of injecting drug use is an important public health objective yet there is little understanding of the process that leads to injection initiation. This paper draws extensively on narrative data to describe how injection initiation is influenced by social environment. We examine how watching other people inject can habitualise(More)
This study examines drug acquisition and multiperson use of paraphernalia, drugs, and needles/syringes. Ethnographers observed 54 injection episodes in which IDUs were linked by HIV risk behaviors, and developed a typology of higher-risk, lower-risk, and nonsharing-risk networks. Multiperson use of injection paraphernalia or drug solution occurred in most(More)
This article describes a study of resilience among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Resilience is defined as positive adaptation in the context of hardship. Using targeted sampling to capture the diversity and range of this hidden population, we recruited 569 YMSM ages 17-28 years old and examined a subset of 134 YMSM who had experienced severe(More)
The cumulative epidemiologic literature indicates that many injecting drug users (IDUs) initiate injection as a mode of drug administration during late adolescence or early adulthood. Recent studies have shown that IDUs are often exposed to viral infections relatively early in the course of injection, highlighting the importance of understanding this(More)
To examine antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance, we recruited a community sample (n=347) of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City, each of whom completed a structured interview and donated a blood sample for HIV genotyping. Participants reported high levels of sexual activity, with 94.6% reporting at least one sexual(More)
One controversial source of infection for hepatitis C virus (HCV) involves the sharing of contaminated implements, such as straws or spoons, used to nasally inhale cocaine and other powdered drugs. An essential precondition for this mode of transmission is the presence of HCV in the nasal secretions of intranasal drug users. Blood and nasal secretion(More)