Michael Cashel

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Catalytic and regulatory domains of the Rel/Spo homolog of Streptococcus equisimilis affecting (p)ppGpp synthesis and degradation activities have been defined, and opposing activities of the purified protein and its fragments have been compared. Two major domains of the 739-residue Rel(Seq) protein are defined by limited proteolytic digestion. In vitro(More)
Recent structural and biochemical studies have identified a novel control mechanism of gene expression mediated through the secondary channel of RNA Polymerase (RNAP) during transcription initiation. Specifically, the small nucleotide ppGpp, along with DksA, a RNAP secondary channel interacting factor, modifies the kinetics of transcription initiation,(More)
Both ppGpp and pppGpp are thought to function collectively as second messengers for many complex cellular responses to nutritional stress throughout biology. There are few indications that their regulatory effects might be different; however, this question has been largely unexplored for lack of an ability to experimentally manipulate the relative abundance(More)
We report that greA expression is driven by two strong, overlapping P1 and P2 promoters. The P1 promoter is sigma(70)-dependent and P2 is sigma(E)-dependent. Two-thirds of transcripts terminate within the leader region and the remaining third comprises greA mRNA. Termination efficiency seems to be unaffected by growth phase. Two collections of small 40-50(More)
The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide(More)
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