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Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently(More)
Lamellipodial protrusion and directional migration of carcinoma cells towards chemoattractants, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), depend upon the spatial and temporal regulation of actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). It is generally hypothesized that the activity of many ABPs are temporally and spatially regulated by PIP(2); however,(More)
Previous studies have shown that macrophages and tumor cells are comigratory in mammary tumors and that these cell types are mutually dependent for invasion. Here we show that macrophages and tumor cells are necessary and sufficient for comigration and invasion into collagen I and that this process involves a paracrine loop. Macrophages express epidermal(More)
Microarray analysis revealed that transcripts for the Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed at high levels in O4+-immunopanned oligodendrocytes isolated from second trimester human fetal spinal cord. In humans the sole known ligand for the Axl/Rse/Mer kinases is growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which in the CNS is secreted by neurons and(More)
Intracellular membrane trafficking plays an essential role in the biogenesis and maintenance of myelin. Members of the Rab protein family are important components of the systems that regulate intracellular vesicle transport. We examine the function of rRab22b, a novel rat Rab protein cloned from an oligodendrocyte cDNA library, by visualizing and(More)
A promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy is to disrupt key pathways regulating immune tolerance, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). However, the determinants of response to anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment remain incompletely understood. In murine models, anti-CTLA-4 mAbs alone fail to induce effective immune responses to poorly(More)
Immune responses to persistent viral infections and cancer often fail because of intense regulation of antigen-specific T cells-a process referred to as immune exhaustion. The mechanisms that underlie the induction of exhaustion are not completely understood. To gain novel insights into this process, we simultaneously examined the dynamics of virus-specific(More)
In studies of murine infection, the capsule thickness of Cryptococcus neoformans varied depending on the organ. The relative order of thickness was as follows: lung > brain > in vitro isolates. The differences in capsule thickness suggest that there are organ-related differences in the expression of genes responsible for capsule thickness.
To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of Taxol and the functionally related molecule epothilone B (EpoB), we have analyzed the gene expression profiles in A549 cells in response to increasing concentrations of these microtubule-stabilizing drugs. An almost identical expression pattern was observed in cells treated with either Taxol or(More)
The role of non-muscle myosin IIA (heavy chain encoded by the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene, Myh9) in immunological synapse formation is controversial. We have addressed the role of myosin IIA heavy chain protein (MYH9) in mouse T cells responding to MHC-peptide complexes and ICAM-1 in supported planar bilayers - a model for immunological synapse(More)