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PD-1, a member of the CD28/CTLA-4/ICOS costimulatory receptor family, delivers negative signals that have profound effects on T and B cell immunity. The 2.0 A crystal structure of the extracellular domain of murine PD-1 reveals an Ig V-type topology with overall similarity to the CTLA-4 monomer; however, there are notable differences in regions relevant to(More)
Lamellipodial protrusion and directional migration of carcinoma cells towards chemoattractants, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), depend upon the spatial and temporal regulation of actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). It is generally hypothesized that the activity of many ABPs are temporally and spatially regulated by PIP(2); however,(More)
Cell motility and migration play pivotal roles in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes including development and tissue repair. Cell migration is regulated through external stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), a key regulator in directional cell migration during embryonic development and a chemoattractant during(More)
Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently(More)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. The recurrent hRSV outbreaks and reinfections are the cause of a significant public health burden and associate with an inefficient antiviral immunity, even after disease resolution. Although several mouse- and human cell-based studies(More)
To determine the distribution of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells responding to EGF as a chemoattractant, an EGFR-green fluorescent protein chimera was expressed in the MTLn3 mammary carcinoma cell line. The chimera was functional and easily visualized on the cell surface. In contrast to other studies indicating that(More)
Previous studies have shown that macrophages and tumor cells are comigratory in mammary tumors and that these cell types are mutually dependent for invasion. Here we show that macrophages and tumor cells are necessary and sufficient for comigration and invasion into collagen I and that this process involves a paracrine loop. Macrophages express epidermal(More)
Cell-mediated immunity is critical for host resistance to tuberculosis. T lymphocytes recognizing antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules have been found to be necessary for control of mycobacterial infection. Mice genetically deficient in the generation of MHC class I and class Ia responses are(More)
Phagocytosis is a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI(3)K)-dependent process in macrophages. We identified Myo10 (Myosin-X), an unconventional myosin with pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, as a potential downstream target of PI(3)K. Myo10 was recruited to phagocytic cups in a wortmannin-sensitive manner. Expression of a truncation construct of Myo10 (Myo10(More)
A promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy is to disrupt key pathways regulating immune tolerance, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). However, the determinants of response to anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment remain incompletely understood. In murine models, anti-CTLA-4 mAbs alone fail to induce effective immune responses to poorly(More)