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PD-1, a member of the CD28/CTLA-4/ICOS costimulatory receptor family, delivers negative signals that have profound effects on T and B cell immunity. The 2.0 A crystal structure of the extracellular domain of murine PD-1 reveals an Ig V-type topology with overall similarity to the CTLA-4 monomer; however, there are notable differences in regions relevant to(More)
Previous studies have shown that macrophages and tumor cells are comigratory in mammary tumors and that these cell types are mutually dependent for invasion. Here we show that macrophages and tumor cells are necessary and sufficient for comigration and invasion into collagen I and that this process involves a paracrine loop. Macrophages express epidermal(More)
The role of non-muscle myosin IIA (heavy chain encoded by the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene, Myh9) in immunological synapse formation is controversial. We have addressed the role of myosin IIA heavy chain protein (MYH9) in mouse T cells responding to MHC-peptide complexes and ICAM-1 in supported planar bilayers - a model for immunological synapse(More)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. The recurrent hRSV outbreaks and reinfections are the cause of a significant public health burden and associate with an inefficient antiviral immunity, even after disease resolution. Although several mouse- and human cell-based studies(More)
Cell motility and migration play pivotal roles in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes including development and tissue repair. Cell migration is regulated through external stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), a key regulator in directional cell migration during embryonic development and a chemoattractant during(More)
To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of Taxol and the functionally related molecule epothilone B (EpoB), we have analyzed the gene expression profiles in A549 cells in response to increasing concentrations of these microtubule-stabilizing drugs. An almost identical expression pattern was observed in cells treated with either Taxol or(More)
Immune responses to persistent viral infections and cancer often fail because of intense regulation of antigen-specific T cells-a process referred to as immune exhaustion. The mechanisms that underlie the induction of exhaustion are not completely understood. To gain novel insights into this process, we simultaneously examined the dynamics of virus-specific(More)
Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently(More)
Lamellipodial protrusion and directional migration of carcinoma cells towards chemoattractants, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), depend upon the spatial and temporal regulation of actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). It is generally hypothesized that the activity of many ABPs are temporally and spatially regulated by PIP(2); however,(More)
To determine the distribution of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells responding to EGF as a chemoattractant, an EGFR-green fluorescent protein chimera was expressed in the MTLn3 mammary carcinoma cell line. The chimera was functional and easily visualized on the cell surface. In contrast to other studies indicating that(More)